Culture of Kazakhstan — страница 2

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Entertainments NAURYZ - a holiday of spring, it is the most momentous and ancient festivity of Oriental nations. In fact, it is a New Year's eve according to the ancient Oriental calendar. It has yet another name "Ulys Kuni"("The first day of the New Year") or "Ulystyn uly kuni" («The great day of the people"). They say that the more you are in celebrating the Nauryz holiday, the greater success will attend you throughout the year. Hence abundance of festive rites and attributes. When the holiday comes, Kazakhs would put on festive clothes, pay visits to each other, exchange congratulations, best wishes of well-being and good luck in the coming year. Universal merry-making, games, traditional horse races, and various amusements accompany

festivities. Traditionally they cook and roast and make all sorts of tasty meals during the holidays, for they should symbolize well-being and abundance in the coming year. The feast is usually timed to the noon; it is preceded and followed by a prayer in honor of the forefathers read by the mullah. In conclusion the eldest of those present gives his blessings (bata) so that year in year out prosperity be part and parcel of the family. When Kazakhs celebrate Nauryz, presence of the figure of "7" is indispensable - it embodies 7 days of the week - time units of universal eternity: in front of aksakals ("white beards» or old men) they would put 7 bowls with the drink of "Nauryz-kozhe", prepared of 7 grades of 7 types of cereals. BERKUTCHI - hunting with a

golden eagle. A tradition that has already been practiced for ten centuries. They say that presenting a youngster with a fledgling of a hunting bird is tantamount to wishing him to be brave and strong young fellow. Virtually training of a golden eagle is a rare and painstaking art. The bird just caught is being slowly trained to its master (a berkutchi). For the purpose the man doesn't get a wink of sleep for several nights with the bird being subjected to similar discomfort. The bird must take food (pieces of raw meat) from its master's hand only. When the eagles has got used to the hunter, its horse and its dog, it undergoes training: first it "hunts" stuffed foxes and only then proceeds with real hunting. Dastarkhan Kazakh dastarkhan has a long story of its own, its

own traditions, and its specifics inherent to Kazakh nation only, known for a quite particular manner of receiving and serving guests. The part tea plays in the Kazakh dastarkhan is altogether remarkable. In fact any Kazakh feast invariably starts with a minutely itemized process of tea drinking. The host welcomes his guests, invites them to the table. Incidentally, it is only up to girls and young women to pour the tea. And they do this wonderfully though it is far from easy. For one should see to it that the guests' drinking bowls be always full, there must be no confusing them, there must be no tea leafs remains on the edge of the bowls. Even if the guest gives to understand that he has already quenched his thirst he must not be left unattended - the hostess must offer him a

so-called "sui-ayak" - a tea bowl of honor. Tea is normally accompanied with cream, butter, jam, dried and fresh fruit, nuts, cakes, other sweetmeats. Tea is but an introduction, an invitation to a capital meal - a festive feast.   First they serve all sorts of appetizers, mostly meat ones - prepared of horse flesh and mutton. They are quite plentiful and their diversity is just as great, all made of smoked, semi-smoked and boiled meat. Added thereto are flat cakes and such milk tonics as koumyss, shubat and katyk... They are followed with vegetable titbits with invariable flat cakes. Next the guests are treated with a kuyrdak - hot rich roast meat prepared of mutton by - products mostly of liver, kidneys, heart, lungs and tail's fat.   After a small break the

guests are treated with all sorts of patties: "samsa"- with meat, "puktermet"- with by- products, "belyashes", "kausyrma" and all... Finally there comes the capital treat - besbarmak. First they cover a large round or oval dish with small round flat pieces of boiled paste followed by small bars of boiled horse-meat or mutton, then comes onion cut in rings and scalded with hot broth, all this strewn with a green mixture of fennel, parsley and kinza... The most honored guest is usually offered a koy-bas (a boiled sheep's head). The guest is to dress it and distribute among the other participants to the dastarkhan. One should mind that each part of the head is attached particular significance and meaning: young men are treated with ears for