Climate change — страница 9

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reduce emissions by 76 MMTCE in the year 2000--or 70 percent of the reductions projected in the CCAP. Annual energy cost savings to businesses and consumers from CCAP actions are anticipated to be $10 billion (1995 dollars) by the year 2000. Even greater reductions are estimated from these measures in the post-2000 period: reductions of 169 MMTCE are projected for 2010, and 230 MMTCE for 2020. Annual energy savings are projected to grow to $50 billion (1995 dollars) in the year 2010. A separate component of this chapter addresses the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation. Projects undertaken through this initiative allow private-sector partners to offset emissions from domestic activities through reductions achieved in other countries. The Climate Convention established a pilot

program for joint implementation at the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties. Guidelines for reporting under the pilot program were established by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice at its fifth session in February 1997. This report uses those guidelines to report on project activity. Table 1-2 Summary of Actions to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent) Action Number Action Title 1993 Action Plan Estimate Revised Estimate* 2000 2000 2005 2010 2020  Residential & Commercial Sector Actions 26.9 10.3 29.4 53.0 78.4 1 Rebuild America 2.0 1.6 3.0 6.3 7.1 1 & 2 Expanded Green Lights and Energy Star Buildings 3.6 3.4 8.5 16.3 30.2 3 State Revolving Fund for Public Buildings 1.1 Terminated 4 Cost-Shared

Demonstrations of Emerging Technologies 5 Operation and Maintenance Training for Commercial Building Facility Managers and Operators 3.8 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 6 Energy Star® Products 5.0 4.3 12.9 19.4 24.9 7 Residential Appliance Standards 6.8 0.2 1.8 3.7 3.8 8 and 11 Energy Partnerships for Affordable Housing 9 Cool Communities 4.4 0.6 1.9 4.3 7.7 10 Update State Building Codes New Construction of Energy­Efficient Commercial and Industrial Buildings Not included 0.1 0.4 1.1 2.6 New Superwindow Collaborative Not included 0.0 0.1 0.4 1.3 New Expand Markets for Next­Generation Lighting Products Not included 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.9 New Fuel Cells Initiative Not included 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4 Industrial Sector Actions 19.0 4.8 8.2 11.5 16.7 12 Motor Challenge 8.8 1.8 3.9 5.8 7.5 13 Industrial

Golden Carrot Programs 2.9 Merged into Motor Challenge (#12) 14 Accelerate the Adoption of Energy­Efficient Process Technologies Terminated 15 Industrial Assessment Centers 0.5 CCAP Component Terminated 16 Waste Minimization** 4.2 2.1 3.6 5.0 8.4 17 Improve Efficiency of Fertilizer Nitrogen Use*** 2.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 18 Reduce the Use of Pesticides Terminated Transportation Sector Actions 8.1 5.3 11.5 15.5 22.1 19 Cash Value of Parking 20 Innovative Transportation Strategies 6.6 4.6 8.4 10.9 17.0 21 Telecommuting Program 22 Fuel Economy Labels for Tires 1.5 0.7 3.2 4.8 5.3 Energy Supply Actions 10.8 1.3 3.7 7.0 18.9 23 Increase Natural Gas Share of Energy Use Through Federal Regulatory Reform 2.2 Terminated 24 Promote Seasonal Gas Use for Control of Nitrogen Oxides 2.8 0.5

0.0 0.0 0.0 25 High­Efficiency Gas Technologies 0.6 Terminated 26 Renewable­Energy Commercialization 0.8 0.3 2.9 5.6 16.4 27 Expand Utility Integrated Resource Planning 1.4 Terminated 28 Profitable Hydroelectric Efficiency Upgrades 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 29 Energy­Efficient Distribution Transformer Standards 30 Energy Star Distribution Transformers 0.8 0.5 0.8 1.4 2.8 31 Transmission Pricing Reform 0.8 Terminated New Green Power Network Not Included 0.0 Not quantified Land-Use Change & Forestry Actions+ 10.0 2.4 3.3 4.2 5.1 43 Reduce Depletion of Nonindustrial 4.0 Terminated Private Forests 44 Accelerate Tree Planting in 0.5 0.4 1.3 2.2 3.1 Nonindustrial Private Forests 16 Waste Minimization** 4.2 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 9 Expand Cool Communities 0.5 Not quantified Methane

Actions 16.3 15.5 19.0 23.4 24.2 32 Expand Natural Gas STAR 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.3 33 Increase Stringency of Landfill Rule 4.2 6.3 7.7 9.1 5.9 34 Landfill Methane Outreach Program 1.1 1.9 2.2 2.9 4.3 35 Coalbed Methane Outreach Program 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.2 4.0 36 RD&D for Coal Mine Methane 1.5 Terminated 37 RD&D for Landfill Methane 1.0 Terminated 38 AgSTAR Program 1.5 0.3 0.8 1.8 3.2 39 Ruminant Livestock Efficiency Program 1.8 1.0 1.6 2.2 2.5 Actions to Address Other Greenhouse Gases 16.3 25.4 40.4 45.8 54.5 17 Improve Efficiency of Fertilizer Nitrogen Use*** 4.5 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 40 Significant New Alternatives Program 5.0 6.4 19.6 23.1 29.8 41 HFC­23 Partnerships 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 42 Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership 1.8 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.4 New Environmental