Bronchopulmonary system — страница 2

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internal surface of a thoracal wall and a diaphragm, internal (visceral) covers a lung. The between leaves refers to as a pleural cavity. At movement of a thorax the internal leaf usually easily slips on external. Pressure in a pleural cavity always less atmospheric (negative). The interpleural space between lungs refers to as a mediastinum; in itself there is a trachea, thymus and heart with vessels, lymph nodes and an esophagus. In common with all other elements of respiratory and circulatory systems, bronchopulmonary system carries out series of the important functions: The Exchange of gases between medium and lungs, that usually designate as " pulmonary ventilation ". The Exchange of gases between alveoluses of lungs and a blood (pulmonary respiration). The Exchange

of gases between a blood and tissues. At last, gases pass inside of a tissue to places of consumption (for O2) and from places of formation{education} (for CO2) (cellular respiration). Abaissement of any of these four processes lead to disturbances of respiration and frames danger to human life. ΙΙ. Features bronchopulmonary systems of the newborn. Already to the end of 5-th month of fetal development there are weak respiratory movements and later more frequent - till 30-40 in a minute. Lungs of the newborn inelastic. Respiratory movements of the newborn should be very frequent because requirement of an organism for oxygen is higher. At rest their frequency is 50-60 in a minute, and the minute volume of respiration exceeds 600 ml. Changes of frequency of respiratory movements

can be observed not only at exaltation of the child, but also during rest. The irregular rhythm of respiratory movements is characterased for all 1 age. In 8-10 days after a birth the volume of lungs is a little enlarged. Body height of lungs increases basically due to branching fine bronchuses and especially genesis of new pulmonary alveolus. To the end of 1-st year the weight of lungs reaches up to 150 г, and their volume up to 250-280 ml. ΙΙΙ. A congenital pathology and diseases bronchopulmonary systems: 1. The Combined disturbance of several structures 1. 1. An agenesia of a lung or a share. An aplasia of a lung or a share. 1. 2. Additional shares of a lung 2. Disturbances bronchoepithelial branchings 2. 1. Tracheabronchomegalia 2. 2. Stenoses of a trachea and bronchuses

3. Anomalies of pulmonary and bronchial vessels The child can be infected fetally at presence at mother of diseases of the genitourinary tract, the certain role has the hypoxia or an asphyxia, a pathology of respiratory system of the child. Frustrations of respiration are pointed first minutes of a life at a fetally infection . As a rule, there is an asphyxia, at once occurs a dyspnea, noisy respiration, rise in temperature within the first 2-3 days. At the pneumonias caused by respiratory infection (a type of a virus), often there is a difficulty of respiration; at an adenoviral infection - a conjunctivitis, a rhinitis, wet tussis, plentiful rhonchuses; at a flu - the nervous system is amazed. The forecast depends on gravity of a condition, presence of accompanying diseases. At

adequate treatment and absence of other pathology within 2-3 weeks there comes improvement of a condition. One of the most frequent diseases of respiratory system is the dyspnea characterised changing of frequency, deepth and a rhythm of respiration. The dyspnea can be accompanied as a sharp acceleration of respiration, and degreasing it up to stopping. Pointed an inspiratory dyspnea(it is shown by difficulty of an inspiration, for example, at a tracheostenosis and large bronchuses), an expiratory dyspnea(are characterized by difficulty of an expiration, in particular, at a spasm stricture of fine bronchuses and admixed type. The dyspnea presents at many acute and chronic diseases of respiratory system. The cause occurrence in most cases arises with change of gas structure of a

blood - incresing of the contents of a carbon dioxide and depression of the contents of the oxygen, accompanied shift pH bloods in the acidic side. The dyspnea is leading display of a respiratory insufiention - a condition at which the system of external respiration of the person cannot provide normal gas structure of a blood or when this structure is supported only by to excessive strains of all system of external respiration. The respiratory failure can arise was acutely (for example, at closing respiratory ways by an alien body) or to proceed chronically, for a long time (for example, at an emphysema of lungs). Pneumorrhagia and a pulmonary bleeding. The pneumorrhagia represents an expectoration with an impurity of the blood added in regular intervals (for example, a