Bronchopulmonary system

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Астраханская государственная медицинская академия Кафедра иностранных языков с курсом латинского языка Зав. кафедрой профессор Татаринова Л.А. Учебно-исследовательская работа по теме «Организация бронхолегочной системы человека. Значение и функции» Подготовил студент 205 группы педиатрического факультета Аксенов А.И. Астрахань 2008 Ι. Introduction. Various specialists of a medical structure often use concept " bronchopulmonary system " at an estimation and interpretings of the work of

researches, etc. Diseases and pathologies of bronchopulmonary system are separately represented in a propedeutics of internal diseases and clinical diagnostics of a pathology of system of organs of respiration of the person. In anatomical andphysiological aspect we can represent bronchopulmonary system as a combination of separate organs and functional subsystems, accordingly, in united functional system of organs of respiration of the person. It in common with circulatory system provides respiration in all senses of this word. So, the functional plan bronchopulmonary the system is formed by the inferior pneumatic ways, a transitive zone and gas exchange area. The pneumatic way is a space which carrying out transport of atmospheric air in gas exchange area. These ways are

presented by a trachea, two primary bronchuses and bronchioles up to 16 generations. The trachea begins at the lower part of a larynx and goes down in a thoracic cavity. Tracheal wall is formed by a connecting tissue and a cartilage. Cartilages form incomplete rings. The parts adjoining an esophagus, are replaced by fibrous ligament. There is a bifurcation of a trachea in the region of 4 thoracic vertebra. Two main bronchuses right and left depart under a right angle from trachea. The right bronchus usually more shortly and more widely left. Bronchuses dihotomical share on segmentary, subsegmentary and so up to 16 orders, finally it is formed trachebronchial "tree". Bronchioles up to 16 generations have not got alveoluses . Tubes beginning from a larynx up to final

bronchioles are covered by a ciliary epithelium. The capacity of pneumatic ways is enlarged as a result of a bronchiectasia, aerodynamic resistance decreases, there is act of an inspiration. Air passage ways are narrowed at end act of experation. Transitive zone - respiratory bronchioles (17-19 generations), they have alveoli, air in them on a chemical compound is close to alveolar. The zone of gas exchange - last four generations of bronchioles (20-23), gas exchange occurs there between alveolar air and a blood. There is this zone in lungs. As a whole, lungs look like spongiform, porous conoideum corpuses laying on both half of a thoracic cavity. The least structural element of a lung - a lobe consists of the final bronchiole leading in a pulmonary bronchiole and an alveolar

bag. Walls of a pulmonary bronchiole and an alveolar bag form excavations-alveoluses. Such structure of lungs enlarges their respiratory surface which in 50-100 times exceeds a surface of a body. Walls of alveoluses consist of one layer of epithelial cells and are surrounded by pulmonary capillaries. Air in an alveolus is separated from a blood in a capillary: Wall of an alveolus, Wall of a capillary and in some cases Intermediate layer between them. These structures also called as aerohematical barrier. The internal surface of an alveolus is covered by surface-active substance surfactant. This substance does not allow alveoluses to be fallen down. Lungs are outside covered by a thin connective tissue environment a-pleura. The external (parietal) leaf of a pleura adjoins an