BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay Research — страница 2

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Lack of: Pellagra. Thiamine: lack of is Beri-beri. Riboflavin: causes sores in skin around mouth. Water soluble  (C). Ascorbic acid. Keep epithelia healthy. Lack of cause scurvy: bleeding in various parts of the body. Water soluble  (D). Calciferol. Helps child?s bones become strong. Lack of cause rickets. Can be obtained from fish liver oil or the body through sunlight. Fat soluble  (E). Found in milk and egg yolk. Lack of cause sterility. Fat soluble  (K). Helps blood clot. Lack of causes internal, external bleeding. Fat-soluble.  Composition of different foods helps us identify useful substances.  Vegetarian: eats no animal meat but does eat products. Vegans do not eat animal products.  Food additives: substances that are added to food. Some give change to

colour, taste, preservation or consistency. How substances are stored WHY DO ORGANISMS STORE SUBSTANCES?  So that they can survive when food is unavailable or scarce  Man can survive several weeks WHERE ARE SUBSTANCES STORED?  The main storage place is the liver for humans.  For plants they swell up and make the swelling the storage place. The plant storage organ can survive harsh conditions then a new plant spouts and the food is moved there. PLANTS STORAGE SYSTEM  Green plants produce glucose that is either used straight away or turned into starch and converted back to glucose when needed.  Other substances can be made from glucose in plants (oil, sugar) REQUIREMENTS FOR TURNING STARCH INTO GLUCOSE  Enzyme  Can be tested with starch HOW STARCH IS TURNED

INTO GLUCOSE  Glucose molecules join together and coil up forming a starch grain (condensation)  The starch grain can de-coil and split up forming Glucose (hydrolysis) ANIMALS STORAGE SYSTEM  Get glucose from food  They turn glucose into glycogen  Glycogen is a bondage of glucose molecules linked together  Stored in the liver  It is also stored as fat MOBILISATION  This is when a solid form of food has to be transported and it is broken down into a solution.  Starch and glycogen are broken down into glucose.  Fat is broken down into fatty acids and glycerol IMPORTANCE OF FOOD STORES  Storage of food in organisms usually mean they are going to be packed together closely, this means anything like this can be a rich source for humans Obtaining energy

from food FOOD CONTAINING ENERGY  We can check this by burning food and estimating the amount of heat given out. (kJ)  kJ per Gram carbohydrates-17, fat-39, protein-18 ENERGY CONTAINED IN FOOD  determines how it should be cooked  Depends on substances inside the food. ENERGY PER DAY  Basal metabolic rate: rate at which body processes take place  Roughly 7000kj per day if lying down doing nothing  At least 9200 kJ per day for doing nothing but essential tasks EXCESS EATING  Most excess not used is turned into fat. Body weight increases  Obesity is when we take in more energy (through food) than we give out.  More exercise, consumption of less energy-containing foods stop or decrease obesity MINIMAL EATING (STARVATION)  First energy stores from fat

will be used up.  Takes energy from muscles  Becomes thin and weak  Anorexia nervosa: psychological loss of appetite  Marasmus wasting away due to starvation Energy release-respiration FOOD BURNING  Oxygen is needed  Carbon dioxide, water and heat are produced ENERGY PRODUCTION IN HUMANS  C6H22O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H3O + ENERGY  We can check the relationship between O2+CO2 and breaking down of food by using radioactive tracers and mice. ENERGY USES  Animal-movement, messages, transportation, warmth, growth, cell division, osmosis, and life!  Plants taking up mineral salts, opening/closing stomata, transporting food substances, growth, cell division, osmosis, and life! CHEMISTRY OF RESPIRATION  Respirometer measures amount of oxygen taken in 

Energy produced from glucose is linked to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)  Breakdown of glucose is used to make ATP  ATP not Glucose gives energy towards muscle contractions