BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay Research

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BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay, Research Paper The chemistry of life (Living things made mostly of carbohydrates, fat and protein) CARBOHYDRATES energy producer  Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen  Glucose is the simplest (dissolves easily in water) monosaccharide  Starch is also common (solid, lots of glucose molecules in a chain (condensation)) disaccharide  Starch is broken down into glucose as well (add waterhydrolysis) FAT energy producer insulation and energy store  Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen  Contains more carbon + hydrogen  Fat molecule is made up of glycerol and fatty acids.  Condensation and hydrolysis play parts here? PROTEIN  Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (and sulphur)  Made of blocks (amino acids) and

links (peptide links)  22 amino acids in nature  Hydrolysis  chain of proteins split (polypeptides) then broken to small amino acids  Reverse in condensation  Soluble proteins make up enzymes.  Denaturalisation occurs when molecule shape changes when heated. CHEMICAL REACTIONS  Occur mainly in gut and cells  Reactions in cells is metabolism  Breaking down or joining options  All reactions are catalysed by enzymes. Enzymes IMPORTANCE  To speed up reactions  They are biological catalysts  TYPES Extracellular enzymes are produced and leave cell to work outside  Intracellular enzymes work inside cell ENZYME CONTROLLED REACTION  Maltose (substrate) maltase (enzyme)  glucose (product) PROPERTIES  Always proteins  Specific 

Reusable  Destroyed by heat over 45 Celsius  Sensitive to pH HOW DO THEY WORK?  Enzyme molecule has active site  Substrate fits into active site  Reaction takes place  Products leave site. HELPING HINDERING  Anything which helps substrate reach enzyme speeds up reaction  Poisons stop temporarily/ permanently the active site ENZYME USE  Biological washing powders  Tenderising meats, skinning fish, removing hairs  Softening vegetables, removing seed coats  Syrups, fruit-juices, chocolates Food and Diet OUR DIET  Carbohydrates  Fats  Proteins  Water  Minerals  Vitamins CARBOHYDRATES  Sugar gives energy  Starch are normally found in small grains called starch granules they also give us energy  Cellulose for plants make a

cell wall for humans it makes a dietary fibre keeping the food moving along the gut FATS  Mainly give us energy  Saturated means that there is no more room for atoms to add on to the existing molecule.  Unsaturated is the opposite. PROTEINS  Needed for growth repair and slight amounts of energy  Kwashiorkor  disease with the lack of protein  Proteins are made of amino acids  Essential amino acids are ones we cannot make but instead take in digestively WATER  Absolutely essential  Needed in all life forms and contained in mostly all substances MINERALS  Sodium. Is a salt. It helps messages to be sent and muscle contraction. Lack of causes cramps in muscles  Calcium used for hardening our bones and teeth. Hardening can only take place when they

take up calcium phosphate and carbonate (calcification). Lack of causes rickets (soft, weak, deformed bones).  Phosphorus. We need it to be absorbed into the calcium. It occurs in membranes.  Iron. Present in haemoglobin (transports O2). Lack of cause anaemia: less O2 transported, less energy.  Iodine. Trace element: needed in tiniest quantities. We get from sea food and drinking water. Needed to make thyroxine. Lack of causes goitre or ?Derbyshire neck?: swelling of thyroid gland next to Adam?s apple.  Fluorine. Trace element. Prevents tooth decay. VITAMINS  Collection of organic substances which control reactions in the body.  (A). Retinol: important for our eyes. Lack of causes night-blindness or xerophthalmia. Fat soluble  (B). Niacin (nicotinic acid).