BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay Research
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BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay, Research Paper The chemistry of life (Living things made mostly of carbohydrates, fat and protein) CARBOHYDRATES energy producer Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Glucose is the simplest (dissolves easily in water) monosaccharide Starch is also common (solid, lots of glucose molecules in a chain (condensation)) disaccharide Starch is broken down into glucose as well (add waterhydrolysis) FAT energy producer insulation and energy store Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Contains more carbon + hydrogen Fat molecule is made up of glycerol and fatty acids. Condensation and hydrolysis play parts here? PROTEIN Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (and sulphur) Made of blocks (amino acids) and links (peptide links) 22 amino acids in nature Hydrolysis chain of proteins split (polypeptides) then broken to small amino acids Reverse in condensation Soluble proteins make up enzymes. Denaturalisation occurs when molecule shape changes when heated. CHEMICAL REACTIONS Occur mainly in gut and cells Reactions in cells is metabolism Breaking down or joining options All reactions are catalysed by enzymes. Enzymes IMPORTANCE To speed up reactions They are biological catalysts TYPES Extracellular enzymes are produced and leave cell to work outside Intracellular enzymes work inside cell ENZYME CONTROLLED REACTION Maltose (substrate) maltase (enzyme) glucose (product) PROPERTIES Always proteins Specific Reusable Destroyed by heat over 45 Celsius Sensitive to pH HOW DO THEY WORK? Enzyme molecule has active site Substrate fits into active site Reaction takes place Products leave site. HELPING HINDERING Anything which helps substrate reach enzyme speeds up reaction Poisons stop temporarily/ permanently the active site ENZYME USE Biological washing powders Tenderising meats, skinning fish, removing hairs Softening vegetables, removing seed coats Syrups, fruit-juices, chocolates Food and Diet OUR DIET Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Water Minerals Vitamins CARBOHYDRATES Sugar gives energy Starch are normally found in small grains called starch granules they also give us energy Cellulose for plants make a cell wall for humans it makes a dietary fibre keeping the food moving along the gut FATS Mainly give us energy Saturated means that there is no more room for atoms to add on to the existing molecule. Unsaturated is the opposite. PROTEINS Needed for growth repair and slight amounts of energy Kwashiorkor disease with the lack of protein Proteins are made of amino acids Essential amino acids are ones we cannot make but instead take in digestively WATER Absolutely essential Needed in all life forms and contained in mostly all substances MINERALS Sodium. Is a salt. It helps messages to be sent and muscle contraction. Lack of causes cramps in muscles Calcium used for hardening our bones and teeth. Hardening can only take place when they take up calcium phosphate and carbonate (calcification). Lack of causes rickets (soft, weak, deformed bones). Phosphorus. We need it to be absorbed into the calcium. It occurs in membranes. Iron. Present in haemoglobin (transports O2). Lack of cause anaemia: less O2 transported, less energy. Iodine. Trace element: needed in tiniest quantities. We get from sea food and drinking water. Needed to make thyroxine. Lack of causes goitre or ?Derbyshire neck?: swelling of thyroid gland next to Adam?s apple. Fluorine. Trace element. Prevents tooth decay. VITAMINS Collection of organic substances which control reactions in the body. (A). Retinol: important for our eyes. Lack of causes night-blindness or xerophthalmia. Fat soluble (B). Niacin (nicotinic acid).