BF Skinner Essay Research Paper BF SkinnerOn — страница 2

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coverings (World Authors 766). The result of this experiment prompted Skinner to write Walden Two (World Authors 766). It gave an account on a Utopian Society where traditional child raising techniques where replaced with “behavioral engineering” (World Authors 766). Skinner thought that human behavior is determined by a response to outside stimuli (World Authors 766). In Walden Two, Skinner’s utopia was said to be a world in a world (Mackle 79). The Walden Two experiment represents a kind of scientific exploration and the experimental code for good behavior is set (Mackle 79). Everyone in Walden Two is expected to follow the code, by doing so they are under the supervision of managers (Mackle 79). This was an ideal society where there isn’t any punishment and discipline

(Mackle 79). But, happiness, goodness, and spontaneity come into play (Mackle 79). Walden Two, which has been read by many and discussed by many, is said to be well written but “too full of ethical abstractions” (World Authors 766). However, many readers were in awe for the thought of even using and experiment done with rats and applying it to human beings (World Authors 766). Escobar 4 Skinner wrote Science and Human Behavior for his general education course at Harvard in 1953 (Encarta 95). Science and Human Behavior explains his behaviorist psychology (Encarta 95). At the same time taking into account previous thoughts over human behavior (World Authors 767). Skinner says, “A science of human behavior could be expected to discover that what man does is the result of

specifiable conditions and that once these conditions have been discovered, we can anticipate and to some extent determine his actions” (Skinner 68). Many of his readers said that the book was “strong, consistent, and all but exhaustive case for a natural science of human behavior” (World Authors 766). Next came Verbal Behavior, in which he said language was just a type of behavior (World Authors 766). Skinner commented that all of the “contingencies of reinforcement influencing an individual would make possible the prediction and control of speech” (World Authors 766). After Verbal Behavior, Skinner wrote his most controversial book. Beyond Freedom and Dignity was published in 1971 (Encarta 95). It extends the ideas in Walden Two and the book is said to make his

definitive statement of man and society (Skinner 69). Skinner says if humanity is to survive “we must abandon such ‘pre-scientific’ ideals as freedom and dignity, and set about controlling our environment and ourselves by means of a ‘technology of behavior’ which will be comparable in power and precision to physical and biological ‘technology’ and which will induce people not to be good but to behave well” (Skinner 69). In the end, survival is “the only value according to which a culture can be judged” (Skinner 69). Escobar 5 The last definite thing found on B.F. Skinner is that he passed away on August of 1990 (Mackle 81). His daughter has said she has a sensation she was a happy baby and spending two and a half years in the Aircrib was a good thing (Mackle

81). B.F. Skinner was a controversial and very interesting person. He did many things to try to help the human race. The main thing given for the field of biology is his development of operant conditioning. Trying to make society a much better thing seemed to be number one on his mind. Even though people didn’t see eye to eye with him and many of his thought were very controversial, it didn’t stop him from following what he thought would be right. Skinner was a much criticized man, he was also, however, and important man in psychology and the development of human thought. He gave this field of work a lot to look toward. Throughout all of his books and papers written there is much to talk about with Skinner has said and done. Mackle, S. “Good Frames and Bad”. New York:

Wiley, 1969. “Skinner, B.F.”. Academic American. Novato, CA: Galahad Books, 1991. “Skinner, B.F.”. Microsoft Encarta. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Corporation. Skinner, B.F. Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillian, 1953. “Skinner, B.F.”. World Authors. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.