Behaviorism Essay Research Paper Behaviorism Notes and — страница 2

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ignore science and reality -Skinner box -A device in a box would deliver food pellets into a tray at random. After a rate became accustomed to the box, Skinner installed a lever and observed the rat’s behavior. As the hungry rat explored the box, it occasionally pressed the ever and a food pellet would be dispenses. -Reinforcement (reward) — A consequence that increases the probability that a behavior will occur -Positive Reinforcement — The frequency of a response increases because it is followed by a stimulus -Negative Reinforcement — The frequency of a response increases because the response is either removes a stimulus or involves avoiding the stimulus. -Punishment — A consequence that decreases the probability that a behavior will occur. -Time Interval - Learning

more efficient when the interval between response and reinforcement is a few seconds rather than minutes or hours. -(Holland, 1996) — Learning is more efficient under immediate rather than delayed consequences. -Shaping and Chaining -Shaping — The process of rewarding approximations of desired behavior. -Chaining — Technique used to reach a complex sequence, or chain or behaviors. The procedure begins by shaping the final response in the sequence. Then you work backward until a chain of behaviors is learned. -Primary and Secondary Reinforcement -Positive reinforcement -Primary Reinforcement — Involves the use of reinforces that are innately satisfying, that is they do not take any learning on the organism’s part to make them pleasurable. -Secondary Reinforcement —

Acquires its positive value through experience; secondary reinforces are learned or conditioned reinforces. -Token Rein forcer — Money -Schedules of Reinforcement -Partial Reinforcement- Responses are not reinforced each time they occur -Schedules of reinforcement — "Timetables" that determine when a response will be reinforced. -Fixed-Ratio Schedule — Reinforces a behavior after a set number of responses. -Variable-Ratio Schedule — A timetable in which responses are rewarded an average number of time, but on an unpredictable basis. -Fixed-Interval Schedule — Reinforces the first appropriated response after a fixed amount of time has elapsed. -Variable-Interval Schedule — A timetable in which a response is reinforced after a variable amount of time has

elapsed. -The closer the schedule is to continuous reinforcement, the faster the individual learns. However, once behavior is learned, the intermittent schedules can be effective n maintaining behavior. -(Skinner, 961) — Rate of behavior varies from one schedule to the next -Fixed-ratio schedule produced a high rate of behavior with a pause occurring between the reinforce and the behavior -Variable-ration schedule elicits a high rate of behavior when the pause after the reinforcement is eliminated…. This schedule usually elicits the highest response rate of all four schedules. -Interval schedules produce behavior at a lower rate than ratio schedules -Extinction — A previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced and there is decreased tendency to perform the

response. -Generalization —Giving the same response to similar stimuli. -Discrimination — The tendency to respond only to those stimuli that are correlated with reinforcement. -Discriminative Stimuli — Signal that a response will be reinforced -Applied behavior analysis (behavior modification) — Application of operant condition principles to change human behavior. Observational Learning — (aka imitation or modeling) Learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates someone’s behavior. -(Bandura (1965) — Bobo dolls Cognitive Factors in Learning -S-O-R Model — A model of learning that gives some importance to cognitive factors -S=stimuls -O=organism, "black box" -R=response -Cognitive map — An organism’s mental representation of the structure of

physical space. -Insight learning — A form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight or understanding of a problem’s solution -Preparedness — Species-specific biological predisposition to learn in certain way but not in others -Instinctive Drift — Tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning. -Taste aversion —if an organism ingests a substance that poisons but does not kill it, the organism often develops considerable distaste for that substance.