Behaviorism Essay Research Paper Behaviorism Notes and

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Behaviorism Essay, Research Paper Behaviorism Notes and other Words Learning — A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience. Classical Conditioning — Responding Operand Conditioning — Acting Observational Conditioning — Observing Classical Conditioning — A neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. -The organism as responding to the environment (fails to capture active nature of the organism and its influence on the environment. ) -Explains involuntary responses - Pavlov -Reflexes — Automatic stimulus-response connections. -Unconditional Stimulus (US) — A stimulus that provides a response without prior learning. -Unconditional Response — (UP) — An

unlearned response that is automatically elected by the US -Conditioned Stimulus (CS) — Previous neutral stimulus that eventually elicits the condition response after being associated with the unconditioned stimulus. -Conditioned Response (CR) — Learned response to CS that occurs after CS-US paring. (Pavlov, 1927) -(DeCola & Fanselow, 1995) — The interval between the CS & US is one of the most important aspects of classical conditioning - Congruity — Degree of association of the stimuli. -(Kimble, 1961) — Conditioned responses developed when the interval between the CS and US is very short, as in a matter of seconds. In many instances, optimal spacing is a fraction of a second. -Generalization – The tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original

stimulus to produce a response that is similar to the conditioned response. -Discrimination — The process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to respond to others. -Extinction — The weakening of the conditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus -Spontaneous Recovery — The process by which a condition response can recur after a time delay without further conditioning. -Stimulus Substitution — Pavlov’s theory of how classical conditioning works; the nervous system is structured in such a way that the CS and the US bond together and eventually the CS substituted for the US. -Information Theory — Contemporary explanation of why classical condition works; key to understand classical conditioning focuses on the information an organism gets

from the situation. -(E. C. Tolman, 1932) — The organism used the CS as a sign or expectation that a US will follow. -Phobias — Irrational fears -Counterconditioning — A procedure for weakening a CR by associating the fear-provoking stimulus with a new response incompatible with the fear. - (Mary Cover Jones, 1924) — Eliminated fear in 3 year old. -Some behaviors associated with health problems or mental disorders can involved classical conditioning. -Operant Conditioning -Form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence. -The behavior operates on the environments, and the environment in turn operates on the behavior. -Explains voluntary actions -Stimuli that govern behavior follow the behavior (as

oppose to Classical C.) -E. L. Thorndike -Experimented with power of consequences in determining voluntary behavior -Law of Effect — Behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthen, whereas behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened. – S-R Theory —Thorndike’s view – The correct stimulus-response association strengths and the incorrect association weakens because of the consequences of the organism’s actions – Organism’s behavior is due to a connection between a stimulus and a response. -B. F. Skinner – Developed concept of operant conditioning (1938) -Pigeon-guided missile – Walden Two (1948) -Presented idea of scientifically managed society -Utopian society through behavioral control -Our behavior is controlled by environmental forces is to