Basketball Essay Research Paper Basketball is an

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Basketball Essay, Research Paper Basketball is an athletic sport, usually played on an indoor court in which two competing teams of five players each attempt to score by throwing an inflated ball so that it descends through one of two baskets suspended, at each end of the court, above their heads. The team scoring the most such throws, through field goals or foul shots, wins the game. Because of its continuous action and frequent scoring, basketball is one of the most popular spectator as well as participant sports in the world. Court and Teams The measurements of American and international basketball courts differ slightly. The basketball court is a rectangular area ranging in size from about 94 ft by 50 ft to about 74 ft by 42 ft. At each end of the court is a vertical

backboard, measuring usually about 6 ft by 4 ft. Each backboard is anchored to a wall, suspended from the ceiling, or otherwise mounted so that its lower edge is about 9 ft above the court. Backboards originated to keep spectators from interfering with the game. The baskets are attached firmly to the backboards about 10 ft above the playing surface. Each basket is about 18 inches in diameter and consists of a horizontal hoop, or metal ring, from which a fringe of wide-meshed white netting is hung. The regulation basketball is an inflated, leather- or nylon-covered sphere that weighs from 20 to 22 oz and has a circumference of about 30 in. A conventional basketball team, which is directed by a coach, is made up of two forwards, two guards, and a center. At the beginning of play,

called the opening jump, the forwards of one team are stationed in the forecourt that is, the half of the playing area containing the basket at which their team is shooting. The two guards stand in the backcourt. The center, usually the tallest player on the team, stands inside a circle that has a radius of about 24 in and is located midway along a line painted across the center of the court. Rules Basketball rules change frequently with the intent of speeding its action, increasing the scoring, and offsetting the advantages given to teams with extremely tall players. Slightly different regulations govern international basketball and the college, scholastic, professional, and women’s games in the United States. In 1971 rules for women’s basketball were redrawn, making it more

like the men’s game. Games are supervised by referees, umpires, official scorekeepers, and timers. Play The game commences with the tip-off, when the referee tosses the ball into the air over the center circle, in which the opposing centers stand face to face. The centers then leap into the air and attempt, with their hands, to tap the ball to their teammates. The team that gets the ball attempts to advance it toward the basket defended by the opposing side, in order to try for a field goal, or basket, scoring two or three points, depending on the player’s distance from the basket. A player may advance the ball by passing it to a teammate or by bouncing (dribbling) it continually along the floor while running toward the basket. If a player walks or runs with the ball without

dribbling it a violation called traveling that player’s team surrenders possession of the ball. After a basket is scored, the opposing team puts the ball into play from behind its end line and in turn tries to move the ball upcourt to score. Penalties and Free Throws A player subjected to illegal body contact, termed a personal foul, receives one or two free throws, from a foul line about 4 m (about 15 ft) from the basket. Each successful free throw counts for one point. Typical fouls include pushing, holding, charging, and tripping. A player fouled in the act of shooting, but scoring the basket, receives one free throw in addition to the basket; this is called a three-point play. In professional basketball, excessive fouls are penalized by granting the opponents extra