Banning On Cloning Is Unjust Essay Research — страница 2
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the gene that causes Tay-Sachs disease, even though both her parents are carriers. The reason? In the embryonic cell from which she was cloned, the flawed gene was replaced with normal DNA. Two years after Ian Wilmut has announced his discovery, a group of European scientists reported that they had cloned six calves using a new technique that allowed the animals to start life biologically younger than the aged cells from which they were derived. Like Dolly, the claves are clones of the original DNA donor, exact genetic copies rather than individual mixtures of male and female DNA. But the cattle also differ from the sheep in one subtle but fundamental way. In Dolly the sheep, scientists found that cloned cells retained the age of the donor. This time, using cow egg cells, researchers modified donor cells in such a way that the egg rejuvenated the new cells and gave them traits of youthful cells. Such techniques might eventually be used to create long-lived body parts from a patient??s own cells. This is one of the many ways in which human cloning can be beneficial to mankind. Dr. Richard Seed, one of the leading proponents of human cloning technology suggests that ??Cloning can help reverse ageing by teaching us how to set our age back to 20.?? This is possible because each time a cell is cloned it is treated as a new cell with the age of zero. Therefore, cloning will enable human beings to copy their cells and have the new ones with the age of zero implanted into them when they are older. This will allow humans to live to any age they wanted and eliminate the fear of old age. Contrary to scientists?? expectations, the birth of Dolly shows that it is possible to reprogram the cell of an adult so that it begins to develop all over again. This newly discovered flexibility means it may have the ability to produce organs or tissues to repair the damaged ones; this will prove an invaluable resource, as there are not enough organs to supply the demand at present. A report has shown that an elderly man develops macular degeneration, a disease that destroys vision. To bolster his failing eyesight, he receives a transplant of healthy retinal tissue cloned from his own cells and cultivated in a lab dish. Not only can the cloned cell repair damaged vision, it can also provide an infusion of fresh bone marrow, and grafts of brand new skin. Unlike cells from an unrelated donor, these cloned cells will incur no danger of rejection; patients will be spared the need to take powerful drugs to suppress the immune system. By combining the technology behind embryonic stem cells and cloning, skin for burnt victims, brain cells for the brain damaged and spinal chord cells for quadriplegics and paraplegics can be grown. Also, conditions such as Alzheimer disease, diabetes, heart failure, degenerative joint disease, and other problems can be made curable as a result of human cloning. At this early stage in the development of cloning, it is essential to continue the debate about potential uses and harms of cloning, and not hastily enact legislation. A true democratic society should not pass laws outlawing something before there is actual or probable evidence of harm. Though cloning research does present some dangers, it also has many potential benefits and should not be banned simply out of fear of its possible misuses. In such a situation of ongoing debate, Congress should be very slow to restrict the uses of cloning, because they are so intimately involved with personal decisions about family, reproduction and curing diseases. A federal criminal prohibition on human cloning risks depriving infertile couples of a potentially legitimate way of forming families, threatens established practices in medicine and genetic screening. Nothing that is known about human cloning is likely to be used to justify such a step.