Bach Essay Research Paper Bach is considered — страница 3

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opportunities for composition andperformance is still somewhat limited. He left in June 1708 after a dispute between thefactions of orthodox Luterans and the morepuritan Pietists threatened to restrict what music could be performed there – althoughsome say that Bach did not necessarilyinvolve himself in the dispute. He accepted an invitation to be the organist and courtmusician to Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Weimar.Despite the problems at Mulhausen, he remained on good terms with the employer, and in1709 returned to perform Ein’ festeBurg (BWV 720) on the newly restored organ, the building of which he had supervised. At Cothen, sacred music was unnecessary, and Bach put his energy into teaching. Duringthe Cothen period, he composed manypieces intended for teaching, which includes

the 48 Well-tempered clavier (Book I) andthe two-part inventions, which wasintended for his children. He also wrote the 6 Brandenburg Concerti in the latest Italianstyle, and the four Orchestral Suites in theFrench Manner. The former was dedicated to the Margrave of Brandenburg, and the latterfor performances at Cothen. Theorchestra at Cothen was a small and efficient unit, and he was able to purchase theinstruments he wanted, so he was able toexperiment a little with new styles. A few fun-things happened while he was at Cothen: acontest was laid on for him and LouisMarchand, the French Organist from Dresden. On the day of the duel, it was discoveredthat Marchand had left the town with themorning mail express, presumably found his ability unequal to the powerful assaults of

hisopponent. While he was away in Carlsbad in 1720, his first wife died, and this seemed to have been amajor shock to him, so he applied forthe post of organist at St Jacob’s, Hamburg. However, he was turned down and thereforehe stayed at Cothen, and a year later hemarried Anna Magdalena Wilcken, the daughter of a court trumpeter there. The Princealso married two months later to a cousinof his, Princess Friederica Henrietta, who Johann Sebastian referred to as the ‘amusa’ andhas little interest in music. The weddingwas followed by 6 weeks of festivities at Cothen and no doubt he would have providedmusic for the occasion. In many ways hesaw this as his own celebration with Anna Magdalena. However, after the festival thePrince’s interest in music also declined,though this

is not a overriding factor in his decision to leave Cothen, for the ‘amusa’ diedsoon after the wedding, in April 1722. Helooked elsewhere for a job, and in 1723 he was appointed Kantor at St Thomas’s Leipzig,only after Telemann and Graupner hadrefused the post because they failed to secure release from their former employers. Thisshould not be taken to mean that he wasconsidered inferior to the two; it was because his name did not appear on the initial list ofpossible candidates, and he had to laterpresent himself to the church authority. After his test performance at which he performedhis cantata Nrs. 47 & 48, the churchcouncil voted unanimously for him. Nevertheless he kept friendly relations with Cothenand he provided a funeral cantata in 1729for the death of Prince

Leopold. Bach’s duties as the Kantor were a mixture of schoolmaster, director of music at severalchurches, and composer for civicoccasions. He and his pupils provided music at four churches, two of which had elaborateSunday services including a cantata onalternate Sundays. He was generally restricted to inadequate forces for a back-breakingtask. Though his appointment as Kantorwas in fact at Thomaschule, the school associated with the nearby Thomaskirche, he wasrequired to provide a great deal ofmusic in another church, the Nikolaikirche. In the first year at Leipzig, he had to write (orsometimes reworked) a cantata forevery Sunday and major festival, composing some 150 between 1723 and 1727. Many ofthese are extraordinarily difficult toperform, especially the solo parts, and

they were probably given inadequately. Hecomposed the Passion according to St Johnshortly before he left Cothen, and was one of the things that was first to be heard atLeipzig, on Good Friday 1724. He probablycomposed other works which had been lost, but his finest setting, the St Matthew’sPassion was to elaborate for the taste of thecongregation and the city elders. His stay at Leipzig was not a smooth one: in 1726 he had a extended disagreement withthe local university over the way in whichthe services should be conducted, and about his Accidenten, the extra salary laid-on forspecial occasions. The new service thatthe university proposed was based on lower payment of Accidenten, and Bach preferredthe better-paid old service. Eventually heappealed to the King of Saxony, and