Babies Growth And Development Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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Primarily, they notice movement. Also, research shows that newborn babies are best able to see an object that is between 5 and 18 inches away. Also, newborns are extremely sensitive to bright lights. Therefore, a baby may open his or her eyes in a dimly lighted room more comfortably then in a brightly light room. Ears Babies have very good hearing. They often startle easily and will cry when they hear loud noises. I remember when my little sister was born, she liked to have songs sung to her and she would quite down when music started. It has been proven that babies must be able to hear in order to develop language normally. Arms and Hands At birth, a baby has virtually no control of their arms and hands. The baby automatically grips objects tightly, for example, a pencil or a

finger. Most babies are not able to open their hands freely until they reach 3 months old. Babies first grasp objects in the palm of the hand with a whole-hand movement. It takes many months before they can pick up an object with the thumb and forefinger. This example proves the third developmental rule…gross and fine motor skills. Legs and Feet Legs and feet are the most helpless of the baby’s body parts. To begin with, the legs are drawn up in the prenatal position. Legs also make automatic creeping or swimming motions. The legs and feet are the last body parts to be controlled by the infant. For example, a baby sits alone and grasps objects with his or her hands long before learning to walk. Again this is a demonstration of the first rule of development…the baby develops

in a head-to- toe direction. Trunk The main part of the body is called the trunk. The trunk will double and redouble in size several times before a baby reaches adulthood. In newborns, the control of the trunk must wait until the brain matures. After about 3 months, control of the head and spine begins. By 5 months, the baby can usually sit up with some help and by 14 months, most babies are walking. Conclusion The entire process of growth and development is called maturation. Most of the development and growth described throughout this project happens as the baby increases in age. Physical maturation cannot be taught to a child. A baby cannot be taught to sit or to stand before muscles develop. These skills are relevant only after the baby’s muscles have matured. Nature has

set a general time for each child’s muscles to mature, making it possible for children to accomplish skills. In a chart, on page 6, I have summarized skills that are generally accomplished at certain ages through a baby’s developing months. Also on a chart on page 9, the physical components of growth, involving large muscle control, small muscle control, seeing, eating, sleeping, and hearing are summarized. The First Year Growth What can a 3-month-old baby do? At 3 months, a baby is alert and responding to the world. * When put on her tummy, she can hold her chest and head up for 10 seconds. * She tries to swipe at toys hung over the crib. * She turns her head toward an interesting sound or listens to voices. * Loves to stare at people’s faces. * She coos and gurgles *

Height-23.5 inches *Weight-12.5 pounds What can a 6-month-old baby do? At 6 months, she is developing control over her body. * She can sit with support and may sit alone for short periods of time. * She can roll over * She will hold out her arms to be lifted up or reach and grab an object. * She can hold her own bottle and toys. * She laughs out loud, babbles, “calls” for help and screams when annoyed. * Height-26 inches *Weight-16 pounds What can a 9-month-old baby do? At 9 months, she is exploring her environment. * She can sit unassisted, crawl, pull to a stand and side-step along furniture. * She can use her fingers to point, poke, and grasp small objects. * She feeds herself finger foods * She knows her name and responds to simple commands * She uses

“jargon”-babbling a pattern as if she were speaking a foreign language. * Height-27.5 inches *Weight-19 pounds What can a 12-month-old baby do? At 1 year, she is striving for independence. * She stands and may walk by herself. * She climbs up and down stairs and out of the crib or play- pen. * She prefers using one hand over the other and can drop and throw toys. * She fears strange people and places. * She remembers events, expresses affection, shows emotions, uses trial and error to solve a problem. * Height-29.5 inches *Weight-22 pounds