Arjuna — страница 3

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still in sense free. He says that God gives virtuous people a tendency to do virtuous things too. I disagree strongly with this. There is no evidence in the Gita for this view. Not only does it contradict what it says in the Gita about action being irrelevant, and undesirable even, it also assumes that God differentiates between good and bad. In the Gita it is plainly stated that God is both good and bad and everything in-between, and also that only our passion and physical being discriminate between them, he does not. The Gita says Even if a man of most vile conduct worships me with undistracted devotion, he must be reckoned as righteous x . There is no good or evil and also God does not favour ANYONE according to the Gita, None is hateful or dear to me xi . Thirdly, there is

the most basic argument against free will, the fact that God knows everything and so he knows your motives for acting and so these are pre-ordained too. The Gita disagrees with this, although it does give the deity the power of omniscience. How is this resolved? Perhaps the non-dualism of the school of Samkara can offer an explanation. This states that our atmans are modes of brahman (In some Upanishads, brahman is sometimes identified with the universe; in others brahman is regarded as a personal God. In the Gita, these appear to be one and the same). We are it, but it is not us. It is more than us, like the relationship between an arm and a body. Surely the Supreme Being has some influence over himself? And our selves are him. So in the connection between perusa and prakrti

within us maybe some sort of free will is achieved by merging the consciousness with the natural world. Not free with the cosmic influence of Krishna, but free will over yourself, to make conscious change within yourself, and this MUST be as only the atman is conscious. Krishna says that praktri is his lower nature and that he creates and controls it. We are modes of the Supreme Being and therefore must share some characteristics. Our minds and bodies are our lower nature (within the power of brahman) and we can create new life and control it too, so maybe we can subdue our lower natures, and achieve moska. The Gita is not clear about whether Arjuna has a choice or not in my opinion. This may be because the Gita is not a philosophical text, but a religious one and so is not based

on defensible metaphysical propositions. But since the whole concept of the text is Arjuna being persuaded to fight, we must assume free will of some sort on his part. Since the wealth of powers that are bestowed on the deity in the Gita is so large, it leaves little room for any sort of free will. In fact there seems no way of denying that the physical world is completely deterministic. However, the presence of atman, perusa, God himself within us, as our self , confuses the issue and makes us not wholly physical and perhaps allows for while not the cosmic free will to do what we please, enough leeway to have influence over our own motives and our own minds. Arjuna has no free choice in what is going to happen, but he has a choice in how he reacts to it, how he sets his mind

whether as a practitioner of yoga or not. Bibliography 1) An Indian Sourcebook in Philosophy ed. Radhakrishnan and Moore 1989 – i – 3.5 Gita , iii – P101, iv – 18.61 Gita, v – 18.63 Gita, vi – 18.57, vii – P49 Upanisads, xiii and ix – P425, x – 9.30 Gita, xi – 9.29 Gita. 2) Fate and Freewill in the Bhagavadgita Arvind Sharma, Religious Studies 1979 – ii. 3) Indian Philosophy – Richard King 1999 4) Free Will – Ilham Dilman 1999 5) The Oxford Companion to Philosophy ed. Ted Honderich 1995