Arjuna — страница 2

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abides in the heart of all beings causing them to turn around by his power as if they were mounted on a machine iv, and so it appears that Arjuna has no free will. However the Gita also reads as if Arjuna does have a choice. Krishna says, After pondering on it fully, act as thou thinkest best v. And why would Krishna try so hard to convince Arjuna if choice was not possible? I think that the answer to this lies in the teachings of yoga within the Gita. Yoga is making the distinction between the self (perusa) and the body (or nature – prakrti). When the self is separated, then we have achieved perfection, the cycle of birth and re-birth will be ended and we shall achieve moksa; we shall be one with brahman (reality?). There are three main way in which to practise yoga, as taught

in the Gita. They are karma-yoga (duty/work): jnana-yoga (knowledge); and bhakti-yoga (devotion). The main point of the Gita is an amalgamation of karma-yoga and bhakti-yoga, regarding HOW Arjuna should act (not what he should do). The philosophy says that action should be taken with not a view to the consequences, but for the sake of duty, or for the glory of God. The results of the action are irrelevant, the only motivation should be surrendering in thought all actions to Me (God) vi. In this way, the theory is not entirely non-consequentialist, it simply moves the moral worth of an action from the results to some other motivation. At first in the Gita, Krishna stresses the importance of doing your duty, but the vast majority of the rest is concerned with pleasing God, or

trying to achieve union with God though bhakti-yoga. So this is the choice that Arjuna has, HOW to perform the action – whether in respect to the consequences, for the sake of duty, or for the attainment of God. There is an objection to this theory that says that the denial of a connection between self and body is implausible. However implausible it may seem to us, that is the whole POINT of yoga, to separate the self from the body. When cease the 5 (sense) knowledges, together with the mind, And the intellect stirs not – That they say is the highest course. This they consider as yoga – The firm holding back of the senses. vii Another objection concerns the empirical ego, or the mind (as opposed to the self). The Upanisads use an analogy of a chariot rider to help explain.

The chariot is the body, the driver is the ego or mind, and the person in the chariot is the self or the atman. The atman has no beginning, no end and is unchangeable. The ego is capable of action, whereas the self is not; the ego is dependent upon its experience in the world, the self is not; and the ego is created from the three gunas, the self is not. Therefore what the ego does MUST be preordained as it is subject to natural laws, which as we have said, are deterministic. This would mean that yet again Arjuna has no choice, even about in what frame of mind he acts, because his mind, the only part capable of action is subject to deterministic laws. However if we go further back into the causes of nature, we find that this is not entirely true. There are two fundamental things

in the world – purusa and prakrti, which are the subject and the object respectively; the knowing object and the known. In the beginning, the three gunas were in perfect balance (three gunas make up prakrti or nature, the physical part of the world), and there was no action. However the presence of conscious persua brings about activity in prakrti and starts evolution. The one of the products of this is buddhi or the intellect, which is followed by manas, the mind and then senses and so on But buddhi (intellect) and manas (the mind) are the instruments of consciousness and are not themselves conscious viii . Gunas are subject to change in the presence of perusa, of which the self (atman) is also a part. From this it does not seem illogical that if you are conscious of the

difference between purusa and praktri then you may have some control over the buddhi and the manas, in other words the empirical ego. This would not be acting in the phyical sense, more influencing. This is what yoga is, because the perusa forgets its true nature and is deluded into the belief that it thinks feels and acts ix therefore by practising yoga, we learn to discriminate and remove the obstacle of prakti. Ramanuja, a medieval Indian writer proposes the theory of permissive occasionalism to give Arjuna some free will in the Gita. The theory states that God (or more specifically God in us, i.e. the atman), either allows or refuses an action depending whether your motivation is good or bad. Ramanuja says that this leaves the action still in the hands of the actor and so is