Aristotle On Rhetoric Essay Research Paper ristotle — страница 2

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always true. Rhetorical syllogisms are probably true, but not always true. The rhetorical syllogism is also called an enthymeme. An enthymeme is “a statement that transfers attitudes the audience already holds to the case at hand: it is like a syllogism, except that its result is not new knowledge, but action” (Brumbaugh, 187). The enthymeme has a missing part that must be filled in by the audience. Syllogism and enthymeme are very closely related. Another concept, pisteis, was developed by Aristotle. Pisteis is divided into three sections: ethos, pathos, and logos. Ethos is the credibility of the rhetor. Pathos is the emotions of the audience. Aristotle wrote about the different emotions to use on specific groups of people, in order to persuade them of some idea. Logos is

the power of reasoning shared by the rhetor and the audience. All three are intertwined, even though they are categorized separately. Aristotle had his own beliefs on rhetoric. He believed that “[the function of rhetoric] is not to persuade but to see the available means of persuasion in each case” (Covino, 3). Aristotle studied the art of argument and developed an optimistic view. He “finds hope in the belief (1) that rhetoric is useful, because the true and the just are naturally superior to their opposites, (2) that generally speaking, that which is true and better is naturally always easier to prove and more likely to persuade and (3) that men have a sufficient natural capacity for the truth and indeed in most cases attain to it” (Stone, 93). He also believed that

even though persuasive argument is all classified under rhetoric, that each argument is its own case and should be dealt with differently than all other cases. Aristotle had strong opinions on rhetoric which influenced many others. After his death, Aristotle’s works were perpetuated at the Peripatetic school by some of his loyal followers. Between 500 and 1000 his ideas disappeared in Western thought, but were preserved by Arabic and Syrian scholars. These scholars reintroduced Aristotle to Western thought betwen 1100 and 1200. Since this time, Aristotle has been extremely influential in Western thought on rhetoric. Top | Part 2 ristotle (384-322 B.C.), a Greek philosopher, educator, and scientist is arguably the most renowned and respected student of rhetoric in history. It is

because of the early works of Aristotle that the field of rhetoric is as defined and understood as it is today. By combining the thoughts of earlier philosophers such as Socrates and Plato, Aristotle created his own ideas and definitions of rhetoric. He incorporated these ideas into essays and books such as Rhetoric and Organon, which are still valued by rhetoricians in present day applications. It is plain to see that much of what is Western thought evolved from Aristotle’s theories and experiments with rhetoric. Aristotle’s Life Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. in the small northern Greek town of Stagiros. The son of a physician, Aristotle was introduced to the field of medicine at an early age. It is this knowledge of anatomy and organic structure , many say, that enabled

him to develop a remarkable talent for observation and discovery. His father was the personal physician of the great Macedonian king, Amyntas II, the grandfather of Alexander the Great. When Aristotle was still a boy, both of his parents died. From this point he was raised by a guardian named Proxenus until he departed for Athens to attend Plato’s Academy. He remained at Plato’s school for over twenty years where he served as a student, research assistant, lecturer, and a research scientist. While at Plato’s school, Aristotle developed a personal affection for Plato and learned many things from his instructor. However, he ultimately rejected Plato’s fundamental concepts and developed his own theories on matters of logic, ethics, metaphysics, as well as rhetoric. After the

death of Plato in 347 B.C., Aristotle moved in with a former pupil of Plato, Hermeias. During his three year stay, he married princess Pithias, Hermeias’s daughter. The couple had two children: a son named Nicomachus as well as a daughter. In 342 B.C Aristotle was invited to direct the education of young prince Alexander at the court of Philip II of Macedonia. During this time he continued his studies with a few private students of philosophy and completed his most famous work, the Rhetoric. He taught Alexander until King Philip was assassinated, after which the prince became king. In 335 B.C. he left Macedonia and returned to Athens to open his own school named “Lyceum.” Here he taught many popular subjects such as ethics, politics, and rhetoric before focusing his