Architecture Essay Research Paper Architecture is the

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Architecture Essay, Research Paper Architecture is the art or practice of designing and building Structures. American architecture varies significantly from architecture of the ancient world. American architecture began around the seventeenth century. Settlers from different European countries brought with them, during the North American colonization, the different techniques and forms from their homelands. Colonial architecture was adapted by the climate of the site chosen, the availability of building materials, and supplies. Skilled workers, particularly trained builders were a must. The general poverty of the colonial settlers was also a factor. Colonial architecture can be broke down into two types. New England settlers’ architecture reflected the late Gothic

Inspiration, such as the gabled houses of wood. The houses also had prominent brick chimney stacks. The south’s chief building material was brick. Many churches and statehouses reflected the classicness of the eighteenth century English architecture. During the early 1730s a growing prosperity and commerce Brought an influx of well-trained artisans to America. English architectural books became more available. Protestant churches adopted and simplified the contemporary English styles. Architects such as Christopher Wren and James Gibbs, designed many of these churches. Two American examples of these churches were Christ Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and St. Paul’s Chapel in New York City, New York. During the end of the colonial period, architectural styles became more

based on ancient Roman and Greek buildings. The style coincided with the American Revolution, thus the neoclassical style became very closely identified with the political values of the young America. Presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson gave serious thought to architecture because they were deeply involved with the planning and building preparations of Washington, D.C. Both Statesman looked to the classical world as their best source of inspiration. Jefferson’s conception of the Roman ideas of beauty and proportion were elegantly expressed in his design for the Virginia State Capitol at Richmond. Architecture, previously reserved for the demain of gentleman amateurs and master builders, became more proffesionalized in the first half of the nineteenth century. The

arrival of several well known European architects, including Benjamin Henry Latrobe, greatly enhanced the field. During the Antebellum period, the south built great mansions. Many were two-story colonnades on large plantations. The shift from earlier Roman based classicism to Greek. Many Greek buildings were located in Washington D.C. and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In the Southwest, the Spanish tradition, often modified by Eastern influences remained dominant until the Mexican War. The writings of John Ruskin influenced American architects at about the time of the Civil War. The fashionable Victoria buildings were seen, such as the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. Historical architecture intensified in the decades following the Civil War. Newly wealthy patrons

resulted in the sprawling, elaborate mansions of Newport, Rhode Island. During this period, many architects went to Paris to study, if possible, to the Ecole des beaux-Arts (school of the Beautiful Arts), to Receive their specific training’s. Architectural schools were established in the United States, beginning with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1865. In the second half of the nineteenth century, the United States advanced into the new building technologies. Engineering became a distinctly separate profession. One of the most famous all American achievements was the Brooklyn Bridge, designed by John and Washington Roebling. The commercial buildings and skyscrapers of big cities were admired greatly. After World War 1, the “prairie style”, developed by Frank