Architecture And Design Essay Research Paper This

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Architecture And Design Essay, Research Paper This paper will focus on one specific design of a landscape architect, architect, planner, object maker, interior designer, and an environmental artist. Martha Schwartz is a landscape architect and her design is the Federal Courthouse Plaza in Minneapolis. It shows a transition in the field towards artistic expression, which has created much controversy. The architect is Peter Eisenman and he has done the same in his work for the Wexner Center of visual arts at Ohio State University, Columbus. Here he focuses on form and less about function and states: My best work is without purpose-who cares about function (Nuttgens, 297). The planner is Denise Scott Brown and her work is Washington Ave, Miami. Here she created a plan and

recommendations for the urban environment, by enhancing it s unique characteristics. The object maker is an architect named Mario Botta and his work is called the Seconda Chair. It is an artistic expression of form and function. The interior designer is an architect named Arne Jacobsen. His work is the Hotel Royal in Copenhagen. Here he shows his absolute control of his design by creating the architecture and every detail inside which relates to artistic expression, form, and function; it is a complete package of every human experience. The environmental artist is Patrick Dougherty and his design is called Paradise Gate at Smith College Northampton. His structure is a large art form made from natural plant materials, which expresses the surrounding landscape and creates humanize

scale that can be not only touched but also experienced spatially. All the designs in this paper will show artistic expression, some more so than others. Martha Schwartz is recent landscape architect who has pushed the envelope of artistic expression in her designs to the point that critics consider it to be personal expression, which doesn t fit into the public purpose (Domus, 51). It is a five hundred thousand square-foot plaza located in Minneapolis civic center in front of a new Federal Courthouse while facing city hall across the street. The program required a plaza designed for both civic and individual activities, with it s own imagery and sense of place. The design represents Minnesota s natural and cultural past. Earth mounds and logs are the elements that represent this

history. The mounds symbolize the natural geological forces: they suggest a Minnesotan field of glacial drumlins, the stylized hill region, or a landscape that allows a dual reading of scale-arrange of mountains or a low field of mounds. The log benches symbolize the great timber forests of the area. Culturally, the mounds represent man s manipulation of the landscape for his own purpose (www.marthschwartz.com). The logs symbolize the cultural forestry economy, which this area was known for in the past and even till this day (figure 1). The mounds are tear shaped and are set diagonally to the linear paving pattern, which is perpendicular to the building. The series of elongated mounds subdivide the plaza and create multiple corridors, which guide the pedestrian to the building.

The logs are set parallel to the mounds and are backlighted with light fixtures inlaid in the paving. The mounds vary in height, ranging from three feet to nine feet. They are planted with jack pine, a native species common in Minnesota s boreal forest, and various perennials as ground covers. Some mounds are just grass while others have various perennials like white narcissus or blue scillas. The blue scillas line up with the blue paving to reinforce its pattern. The paving pattern guides the pedestrian into the lobby. In the winter, the heavy snow heightens the sculptural effect of the drumlins. Granite bollards are used at the main larger openings in the plaza to prevent vehicular circulation. The granite bollards also express the linear paving pattern by being lined up on the