Archaisms in literature — страница 6

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language shew unknown Variant of show. 'To shew Louisa, how alike in their creeds, her father and Harthouse are?' - (Dickens' notes on Hard Times). Used in the 19th century smote past participle of 'smite' from Old English smitan = 'to strike' To strike hard, beat, inflict a blow And he smote them hip and thigh with a great slaughter... (Judges 15:8) used in Biblical, Shakespearian and poetical language. stand high unknown to have a good reputation   Used in 1860s thee, thou, thy/thine from Old English юъ old 2nd person singular pronoun Thou art my God, and I will praise thee: thou art my God, I will exalt thee. (Psalm 118:28) "Thee" is used when it is the grammatical object, "thou" when it is the subject. "Thy" and "thine" are both

genitives, but "thine" is only used in front of an initial vowel or h. Still used in Biblical/Shakespearian/poetical language.Also still used in northern dialects of British English e.g. Yorkshire. thither (to) there English accusative case form of indicative pronoun there     thole from Old English юolian to bear; put up with; suffer A man with a good crop can thole some thistles (Scots Proverb) Still used in northern and Scottish dialects of British English e.g. Yorkshire. unto   to, onto, upon And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou? (Genesis 3:9) Mainly used in Early Modern English. wert from be imperfect second-person singular form of the verb be If thou wert pure and upright; surely now he would awake for thee, and make

the habitation of thy righteousness prosperous. (Job 8:6) used in Biblical, Shakespearian and poetical language. whitesmith from blacksmith, an iron worker a tinsmith   Used in 1860s whither contraction of where hither to where (destination) whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? (Genesis 16:8) Compare to wohin in German. used in Biblical, Shakespearian and poetical language. whitlow unknown a sore or swelling in a finger or thumb   Used in 1860s, still used in British English wilt from will used to form the future tense of verbs whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? (Genesis 16:8) used in Biblical, Shakespearian and poetical language. wittles from "victuals" food You bring me, to-morrow morning early, that file and them wittles. (Great

Expectations, Charles Dickens) Used in 1860s, vittles still used in British and American English zounds corrupted form of "Christ's wounds" expletive   still used occasionally in British English 2 Analysis of ancient texts W. Shakespeare, Sonnet 2. When forty winters shall besiege thy brow, And dig deep trenches in thy beauty's field, Thy youth's proud livery, so gaz'd on now, Will be a tatter'd weed, of small worth held. Then being ask'd where all thy beauty lies, Where all the treasure of thy lusty days To say, within thine own deep-sunken eyes, Were an all-eating shame, and thriftless praise How much more praise deserv'd thy beauty's use, If thou couldst answer 'This fair child of mine Shall sum my count, and make my old excuse,' Proving his beauty by succession

thine! Thy – your Brow – forehead, expression (EME, poetic) Livery - gown; dress; costume; finery (EME, poetic) So gaz'd on now - here – that I see on you now Tatter'd – tattered Of small worth held - of the worst type Lusty - healthy , strong , vigorous Thine – your Thou – you Couldst – could When forty winters will besiege your face, and dig deep trenches in your beauty's field, your youth's proud gown, that I see on you now, will become a tattered weed, of the worst type. Then being asked where all your beauty lies, where all the treasure of your vigorous days to say, within your own deep-sunken eyes, were an all-eating shame, and thriftless praise How much more praise deserved your beauty's use, If you could answer 'This fair child of mine will sum my count, and

make my old excuse,' Proving his beauty by your succession! An unaware person is unlikely to understand some words in this sonnet. May be someone will assume that this sonnet has an awkward conglomeration of archaic forms. But taking into consideration that it is written by Shakespeare, all the doubts concerning its readability and perceptibility are gone. Here we can easily trace an existence of archaic forms of personal pronouns. The verb form couldst, faintly reminding German word because of its ending –st, attracts reader’s attention as well. We can also see words that changed their meanings nowadays. E. g. the word brow means a part of the face – arched line of hair above one’s eye, but not the whole face. Word order also differs from Modern English rules of