Archaisms in literature — страница 5

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cracks is called a craze. A modern usage would be in crazed paving. dost from do present second-person singular form of the verb do I cry unto thee, and thou dost not hear me... (Job 30:20) used in Biblical, Shakespearian and poetical language. doth from do present third-person singular form of the verb do The north wind driveth away rain: so doth an angry countenance a backbiting tongue. (Proverbs 25:23) used in Biblical, Shakespearian and poetical language. drab unknown a prostitute Finger of birth-strangled babe, ditch-delivered by a drab. (Shakespeare's Macbeth)   dream A part of the root stock of the OE vocabulary. joy   Under the influence of Old Norse speakers in England, the word dream changed its meaning from ``joy, festivity, noisy merriment" to ``a

sleeping vision". Died out before the 13th century. ducats A bullion coin (not legal tender) used in international trade money   Austrian Ducats were displaced by Gold Sovereigns throughout the British Empire. The term is used today only to refer to the coin in numismatic circles, as Ducats are still produced by the Austrian mint. Ducat, in Latin, means "he rules", "she rules", or "it rules". eek, eke Old English "ecan", to increase. Compare Dutch "ook" (also). also When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt and heath (in this case, meaning is closer to "also") (Chaucer's Canterbury Tales) ; Used mostly in Middle English, but also later on until the 1600s. Is the origin for the word

"nickname" (in Middle English "ekename"). -est from Old English "-est". Compare with German "-st". suffix used to form the present second-person singular of regular verbs When thou goest, thy steps shall not be straitened; and when thou runnest, thou shalt not stumble (Proverbs 4:12) used in Biblical, Shakespearian and poetical language. -eth from Old English "-eр". Compare with Dutch and German "-t". suffix used to form the present third-person singular of regular verbs He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters. (Psalm 23:2) used in Biblical, Shakespearian and poetical language. fire a rick unknown to burn a stack of hay (rick), as a form of protest   Used in 1860s Forsooth!

  Really!   Used in Shakespearian English fluey From the flue of a chimney, normally coated with soot from log or coal fires dusty   Used in 1860s Grinder unknown a tutor who prepares students for examinations   Used in 1860s hast from have present second-person singular form of the verb have Thou hast proved mine heart; thou hast visited me in the night; thou hast tried me, and shalt find nothing... (Psalm 17:3) Compare to hast in German. Used in Biblical, Shakespearian and poetical language. hath from have present third-person singular form of the verb have This is the day which the Lord hath made; we will rejoice and be glad in it. (Psalm 118:24) used in Biblical/Shakespearian/poetical language hither (to) here English accusative case form    

ivory tablets unknown paper for notetaking   Used in 1860s kine Middle English kyen, a plural of the Old English cy, plural of cu, meaning cow cattle   Used until late 1800s; still in Biblical use; Spenser used the form kyne mote unknown may, might   NB. It may be argued that it is not technically defunct since the word is still used in freemasonry and wicca as part of certain rituals. over the broomstick unknown to be married in a folk ceremony and not recognized by the law. Still commonly used as part of the ceremony in modern Pagan weddings by Wiccans, Witches and other alternative spiritualities. "Then if somebody been wantin' to marry they step over the broom and it be nounced they married" (Slave Narratives Betty Curlett of Hazen, Arkansas). Used in

1860s, "over the brush" still used in British English, c.f. jumping the broomstick. quantum Latin for "as much", "how much" money to pay a bill   Used in 1860s. Still used in this sense in some legal terminology. rantipole unknown to behave in a romping or rude manner   Used in 1860s read with unknown to tutor   Used in 1860s, still used in Caribbean English shake-down unknown a bed   Used in 1860s, also a modern slang term dealing with law enforcement, and, as an adjective indicating an initial cruise for a Navy ship shalt from shall used to form the future tense of verbs Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel. (Psalm 2:9) used in Biblical, Shakespearian and poetical