Anxiety Disorder Essay Research Paper Everybody has — страница 3
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the ritual isn t needed to decrease discomfort. Five drugs have been effective in treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, these include clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Certain other antidepressant drugs are also used, but much less often. Psychotherapy has generally not been effective for people with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Panic disorder is characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms that may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or abdominal distress. The diagnosis of a panic disorder is frequently not made until extensive and costly medical procedures fail to provide a correct diagnosis or relief. Part of this disorder is the appearance of panic attacks that are often unexpected and occur for no apparent reason. A panic attack involves the sudden appearance of at least four of the following symptoms: shortness of breath or sense of being smothered; dizziness; unsteadiness, or faintness; palpitation or accelerated heart rate; trembling or shaking; sweating; choking; nausea, stomachache, or diarrhea; feelings of unreality, strangeness, or detachment from environment; numbness or tingling sensations; flushing or chills; chest pain or discomfort; fear of dying; and fear of going crazy or losing control. Drugs that are used to treat panic disorder include antidepressants and antianxiety drugs such as benzodiazepines. When a drug is effective, it prevents or greatly reduces the number of panic attacks. Exposure therapy, where the person is exposed repeatedly to whatever triggers the panic attack, often helps to diminish fear. Psychotherapy may also be useful. Accurate diagnosis is important, since treatment varies from one disorder to another. A family history of an anxiety disorder may help the doctor make the diagnosis, since the predisposition to a specific anxiety disorder as well as a susceptibility to anxiety disorders in general often is hereditary. Works Cited Bernard, Harold W. Psychology of Learning and Teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965. Cain, Dr. Arthur H. Young People and Neurosis. New York: The John Day Company, 1970. Fogiel, M. The Best Test Preparation for the Advanced Placement: Psychology. New Jersey: Research and Education Association, 1998. Merck & Co., Inc. The Merck Manual–Home Edition. [Online] Available http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home/sec7/83.htm, May 14, 2001. Myers, David G. Exploring Psychology. Michigan: Worth Publishers, 1999. National Institute of Mental Health. Quick Facts About Anxiety Disorders. [Online] Available http://www.nimh.nih.gov/anxiety, May 10, 2001. Satcher, David. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General- Chapter 4. [Online] Available http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter4/sec2_1.htm, May 11, 2001. Schneier, Franklin R. Detachment and Generalized Social Phobia. The American Journal of Psychiatry (Feb. 2001): 2 pp. Online. Internet. 13 May 2001. Schrof, Joanne M. Social Anxiety. SIRS Health 1 (34). Weinstein, Grace W. People Study People: The Story of Psychology. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1979.