Anxiety Disorder Essay Research Paper Everybody has — страница 2

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physical symptoms, such as fatigue, trembling, muscle tension, headaches, irritability, or hot flashes. About three to five percent of adults have it at some time during a given year. Statistics from the National Institute of Mental Health report that women are twice as likely as men to have GAD. It often begins in childhood or adolescence but may start at any age. For most people, the condition fluctuates, worsening at times, and persists over many years. Medication is the primary treatment for GAD. Benzodiazepines are usually prescribed, but buspirone is another effective drug for treating GAD. Behavior therapy isn t usually beneficial because no clear-cut situations trigger the anxiety. Relaxation and biofeedback techniques may be of some help. For some people psychotherapy

may be effective in helping to understand and resolve internal psychological conflicts. Phobias involve persistent, unrealistic, intense anxiety in response to specific external situations, such as looking down from heights, or coming near a small dog. People who have a phobia avoid situations that rigger their anxiety, or they endure them with great distress. However, they recognize that their anxiety is excessive and therefore are aware that they have a problem. Two of the most common phobias are agoraphobia and social phobia. Agoraphobia literally means fear of the marketplace or open spaces, the term more specifically describes the fear of being trapped without a graceful and easy way to leave if anxiety should strike. Certain situations that cause anxiety for people with

agoraphobia are standing in line, sitting in the middle of a row at the theater or in a classroom, and riding on a bus or airplane. Agoraphobia often interferes with daily living, sometimes so drastically that it leaves the person housebound. Social phobia is the fear of being humiliated in a social setting, such as when meeting new people, giving a speech, or talking to the boss. For people with social phobia the fear is not mild or moderate and never passes, The fear is extremely intrusive and can disrupt normal life. The best treatment for agoraphobia is exposure therapy, a type of behavior therapy. With the help of a therapist, the person seeks out, confronts, and remains in contact with what he/she fears until their anxiety is slowly relieved by familiarity with the

situation. People with agoraphobia who are deeply depressed may need to take an antidepressant. Social phobia can be effectively treated with medications including benzodiazepines. Franklin R. Schneier informs us in his book, Detachment and Generalized Social Phobia, that exposure therapy may also be a very useful treatment of social phobia. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is an extremely debilitating condition that can occur after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm was threatened or occurred. These traumatic events may include rape or mugging, natural or manmade disasters, car accidents, or military combat. Most people try to avoid any reminder or thoughts of the ordeal but constantly re-experience the event in the form of flashback episodes,

memories, nightmares, or frightening thoughts. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is only diagnosed if the symptoms last more than one month. Treatment involves behavior therapy, drugs, and psychotherapy. In behavior therapy, the person is exposed to situation that may trigger memories of the painful experience. After some initial increase in discomfort, behavior therapy usually lessens a person s distress. Antidepressant and antianxiety drugs appear to provide some benefit. Because of the often intense anxiety associated with traumatic memories, supportive psychotherapy plays an especially important role. Psychotherapeutic techniques may be needed to help the person retrieve key traumatic memories that had been repressed, so that the memories can be dealt with constructively.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is characterized by the presence of recurrent, unwanted, intrusive ideas, images, or impulses that seem silly, weird, nasty, or horrible (obsessions) and an urge or compulsion to do something that will relieve the discomfort cause by an obsession. Common obsessions include concerns about contamination, doubt, loss, and aggressiveness. Rituals such as handwashing, counting, checking, or cleaning are often performed in hope of preventing obsessive thoughts or making them go away. Most people with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder are aware that the obsession don t reflect actual risks. They realize that their physical and mental behavior is excessive to the point of being bizarre. Exposure therapy often helps with this disorder, teaching the person that