Anwar Sadat Essay Research Paper Anwar SadatIn — страница 2

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(mostly caught unawares on the ground) and swept through the Sinai to the Suez Canal routing the Egyptian army, killing at least 3,000 soldiers. The devastation also threatened to bankrupt the government. Internal squabbling among Arab nations and the growing Palestinian movement eventually strained Nasser’s abilities to the limit. Under the strain, Nasser collapsed and died on 29 September 1970. hen he succeeded Nasser, Sadat was completely unknown and untested. Over the next 11 years, however, Sadat proved his leadership abilities. His first trial on the international scene involved the aftermath of the Six Days War. Sadat openly offered the Israelis a peace treaty in exchange for the return of the Siani lands taken in the attack. Domestic crisis and international intrique

presented Sadat with seemingly insurmountable problems. The Egyptian economy continued to real from war with Israel and the Egyptian’s continuing relationship with the Soviet Union deteriorated as the Soviet’s proved unreliable allies. When pressed for more military support to replace the devastation of the Six Days War, the Soviets simply ignored Sadat’s requests. In a bold move, which soon became his trademark, Sadat expelled the Soviets. This grand gesture solidified Egyptian internal support at a time when the average Egyptian suffered greatly. Behind the scenes, however, Sadat plotted to retake the Egyptian Siani if the Israelis continued to refuse the Egyptian peace initiative. On 6 October 1973, Sadat struck. With exceptional military precision, the Egyptian army

crossed the Suez back into the Sinai and began driving the Israeli army into the desert. Though short-lived, the attack created a new momentum for peace both in Egypt and in Israel. These pressures coincided with continued domestic problems in Egypt. The deteriorating economy in Egypt, accomplanied by a growing distance between rich and poor, led to internal strife, riots, strikes, attacks on the rich. These internal pressures raised the attention of the international community, particularly the United States, concerned that internal strife would weaken Sadat’s moderate policies. Convinced that peace with Israel would reap an enormous “peace dividend,” Sadat initiated his most important diplomatic ploy. In a speach to the Egyptian parliament in 1977, Sadat affirmed his

desire to go anywhere to negotiate a peace with the Israelis. Even, he affirmed, he would go to the Israeli parliament to speak for peace. The Israeli’s responded with an invitation to do just that and Sadat’s speech to the Israeli Knesset initiated a new momentum for peace that would eventually culminate in the 1978 Camp David Accords and a final peace treaty with Israel in 1979. For his efforts, Sadat won the Nobel Prize for Peace. At home, Sadat’s new relationship with the west and his peace treaty generated considerable domestic opposition, especially among fundamentalist Muslim groups. In 1980 and in 1981, Sadat took desperate gambles to respond to these new internal problems. He negotiated a number of loans to support improvements in everyday life. And he

simultaneously enacted laws outlawing protest and declared that the Shari’a would be the basis of all new Egyptian law. October 6, 1981, Sadat died at the hands of fundamentalists assassins during a military review celebrating the 1973 Suez crossing.