Antisemitism In The World Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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Jews. Anti-Semitism is the hatred of the Jewish people. The term was first used by a German in 1873, Wilhelm Marr, who founded the “League for Anti-Semitism.”(Davies 24) Marr developed the view that Jews consisted of a distinct racial group which were both physically and morally inferior to the Aryans. According to Marr, there was unquestionable scientific evidence that the Jews were inclined to be a slave race while the Aryans were the only Master Race. The term Anti-Semitism does not refer to all the Semites. It does not include the Arabs , it only directs hatred to all of the Jews.(Davies 24)In 1543, the father of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther wrote “First their synagogues should be set on fire, and whatever does not burn up should be covered or spread over

with dirt so that no one may ever be able to see a cinder or stone of it. Jewish homes, he urged, should likewise be broken down or destroyed. Jews should then be put under one roof, or in a stable, like Gypsies, in order that they may realize that they are not masters in our land. They should be put to work, to earn their living by the sweat of their noses, or if regarded even then as too dangerous, these poisonous bitter worms should be stripped of their belongings which they have extorted usuriously from us and driven out of the country for all time.” (Internet Source) Another example of the hatred could be found when you look at the Justinian code. The Justinian Code was a declaration of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian. A section of the code denied civil rights for Jews.

Once the code was enforced, Jews in the Empire could not build synagogues, read the Bible in Hebrew, gather in public places, celebrate Passover before Easter, or give evidence in a judicial case in which a Christian was a litigant.(World Book Encyclopedia 1979)The early Christians have always held the Jews responsible for the crucifixion of Christ, this was an allegation that became the justification for anti-Semitism for many centuries. The early Christians had much in common with the Jews. But after the death of Christ they wanted nothing to do with the Jews. The earliest Christians differed from the Jews primarily in their belief that Jesus was the messiah. Other differences were that the Jews observed strict dietary laws. They could not, according to law, share a meal in

their neighbors’ homes. Jews also could not, according to law, work on the seventh day. Christians observed Sunday as their Sabbath. Also according to their law, Jews were not supposed to marry outside their faith, and most did not. Jews maintained their traditional dress and continued to wear beards and earlocks. When the Roman Empire became officially Christian in the 4th century AD, the Jews became subject to many discriminatory laws, including a prohib!ition against seeking or even accepting converts.(Internet Source)Many Jewish communities rebelled against Rome early in the second century. However, their rebellions were crushed, and many Jews lost their lives. Even worse was the revolt of Palestinian Jewry led by Bar Kochba in 132 which was over after three years of

fighting. For a long time thereafter, observance of the basic Jewish practices and customs were made capital crimes, and Jews were banned from Jerusalem.(Gager 61)In 1391 thousands of Jews were massacred by the Spanish and thousands more were converted by force or accepted baptism to save their lives. These so called “new Christians” who were also known as Marranos, were suspected of practicing Judaism in secret. Many Marranos rose to high positions in the court and in the church, but they were constantly spied on, and many were killed in the “autos-da-fe”, which was a festive celebration in which the baptized Jews who were caught still practicing Judaism were burned at the stake.(World Book Encyclopedia 1979)Nevertheless, Jews were needed in the very countries that

persecuted them. Christians were not able to take interest on loans; as a result, Jews were required to engage in money lending. In general, they were excluded from ownership of land and from the organizations that controlled the skilled professions. Eventually Christian money lenders learned to collect interest under other names, and the Jews were no longer needed. They were expelled from England in 1290 and, after several earlier bans, finally from the kingdom of France in 1394.(Internet Source)Jews had long been accustomed to living in neighborhoods of their own, for their own security and for quick access to a synagogue. From the 16th century, however, they were forced to live in walled enclosures almost like jails, to be locked in at night and on Christian holidays, and to