Anthro Essay Research Paper NeanderthalsNeanderthals inhabited Europe

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Anthro Essay, Research Paper Neanderthals Neanderthals inhabited Europe and the Near East until about 30,000 years ago. They disappeared after their successor, Cro-Magnon man, who was anatomically modern man migrated to Europe. Many theories have been put forth to explain what happened to the Neanderthals. One of these theories suggest that Neanderthals were a separate species apart from Cro-Magnon man and their birth rate was slower than that of Homo Sapiens; they were out competed and simply replaced within generations, by the more flexible and technologically more advanced Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens had a more complex and specialized tools made out of bone, ivory, and antler. With these innovations, Cro-Magnon did not have to work as hard as Neanderthals did in order to

survive. With a much more sophisticated technology, Neanderthals would have had to compete with modern humans for their meats. This led to starvation and a decrease in the overall Neanderthal population, which could have been the cause of extinction. In contrast with Cro-Magnon man who lived into their fifties, Neanderthals had a much shorter life span, barely surviving until the age of forty. Another theory states that Neanderthals were not in fact a separate species, but interbred with Homo sapiens whose genes eventually became dominant at the eventual expense of the genes delivering into Neanderthal characteristics. This theory came from the fact that Cro-Magnon and Neanderthals inhabited the same regions of Europe for thousands for years. The fate of the Neanderthals is

never-ending until archaeologist finds evidence of their fate. However, they did have human characteristics. Neanderthals were compassionate enough to bury their dead, care for their injured and ill, develop complex tools, create some form of ritual behavior, and communicate in some ways. It is this aspect of humanity that was improved and carried on by their successors, Cro-Magnon man, who later dominated the world Morphology Neanderthal bone structure and morphology was somewhat different from that of modern man?s. There are two different varieties of Neanderthals, ?classical? and ?progressive?. The type that is discussed in this report is primarily classical. Classical Neanderthals were better adapted for harsh, cold climates. Their bodies were short and squat, which primarily

helped in keeping them warm in nasty, below freezing Ice Age weather. It has been speculated that their noses and large nasal cavities were also an adaptation to the cold climates that they lived in. With larger nasal passages, cold air could be quickly warmed while breathing. Neanderthals also had different shaped skulls than our own. They have a low, sloping foreheads, whereas ours are much higher. Their brains were longer and lower, and rested behind as well as above the face. These hominids? morphology was that their bones were much larger and thicker than modern humans. Their leg, foot, and hand bones were especially sturdy. They didn?t have to work for it because they were born this way naturally. Neanderthals led strenuous lives and for that reason they needed a strong

bone structure. Their heavy build is the result of their strenuous lifestyle. They hunted very close and were getting constantly injured I their struggle to survive. These hominids did much foraging across various terrains, not really planning where and when they?re going. Neanderthals? bones structure is almost forty percent more than that of modern human. Other features is the projecting midfacial features of Neanderthals which were an anchor for their heavy jaw muscles and was used for gripping objects. Progressive Neanderthals on the other hand, do not have as many strong features as the classics. They have less pronounced browridges, less midfacial projection and they were more tall and gracile than the classics. Their bone structure was also not as robust as their