Animated Films Essay Research Paper American animation — страница 3

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the "Krazy Kat" and "Scrappy" series produced Disney's former distributor, Charles Mintz. Universal had obtained the rights to Oswald the Rabbit from Mintz and hired Walter Lantz, who made over 120 cartoons in the series during the 1930s, often co-directing with William Nolan; notable entries include the Depression-era morale-booster Confidence (1933) and the musical Kings Up (1934). Paul Terry started Terrytoons, with Fox distributing, and busied himself in the '30s writing and producing a steady stream of cartoons, many still with Farmer Al Falfa. The Van Beuren studio released dozens of Terry-less "Aesop's Fables," as well as more original work such as Ted Eshbaugh's Sunshine Makers (1935) and Burt Gillett's "Toonerville Trolley" series;

but their attempt to revive Felix the Cat failed, and they ceased production in 1936. At Paramount, the Fleischers temporarily retired Koko to launch their sound "Talkartoons" in 1929. Dizzy Dishes (1930) introduced a female dog who, after a some refining — and a species change into a human — became one of their most popular characters: Betty Boop. In such 1933 cartoons as Boop-Ooop-A-Doop and Is My Palm Red?, the gags were full of sexual innuendo; that year's Snow White, besides its surreal humor, also brought in the voice and music of Cab Calloway. Betty appeared in over a hundred cartoons during the '30s, although her style was cramped by the censorship-conscious Paramount after her first few years. Taking up the slack was a new series with a character who had

been introduced in a Betty Boop cartoon called Popeye The Sailor (1933). Max had bought the rights to Elzie Segar's comic strip "Thimble Theatre," and soon the grumbling, spinach-eating sailor was starring with other Segar characters — the reed-thin heroine Olive Oyl, the violent heavy Bluto, the hamburger-loving Wimpy — in such classic cartoons as A Dream Walking (1934), For Better Or Worser (1935), and Lost And Foundry (1937). The Fleischers even made acclaimed two-reelers: Popeye The Sailor Meets Sinbad The Sailor (1936) and the Technicolor shorts Popeye Meets Ali Baba And His 40 Thieves (1937) and Popeye The Sailor Meets Aladdin And His Wonderful Lamp (1939). After Harman, Ising, and Freleng left Disney, they began the "Looney Tunes" series of cartoons

in 1930, produced by Leon Schlesinger and released by Warner Bros. Their new character Bosko wasn't anything special, but the cartoons were filled with music and gags, and were enjoyed by the public; a second series, "Merrie Melodies," was launched and new animators were hired, among them Robert Clampett, Robert McKimson, and Chuck Jones. Harman and Ising left in 1933 to head animation at M-G-M, and took Bosko with them. The first of what would become a galaxy of stars from Warner Bros. appeared in 1935, when Freleng's I Haven't Got A Hat introduced a stuttering pig. At the end of the year a new director at Warners, former Lantz animator Frederick "Tex" Avery, took up the character, and in 1936 Porky Pig had his own series at Warners, thanks to Avery (The Blow

Out, Porky The Wrestler) and another new director, former Iwerks animator Frank Tashlin (Porky's Poultry Plant, Porky Of The Northwoods). The following year, Clampett was promoted to director, and he too began using Porky (Porky's Hero Agency). Also in 1937, Avery introduced a maniacal bird in Porky's Duck Hunt, who was to become the next Warners legend, Daffy Duck. Avery further developed Daffy (Daffy Duck In Hollywood, 1938), as did Clampett, who teamed him with Porky (The Daffy Doc, 1938); Jones worked with them too, once he began directing in 1939. Director Ben "Bugs" Hardaway had a screwy rabbit confounding hunters in Porky's Duck Hunt (1938) and Hare-Um Scare-Um (1939, co-directed by Cal Dalton). By the mid 1940s Warners had a rabbit who was, after Mickey Mouse,

the most beloved and recognizable figure in the history of animation: Bugs Bunny. The rabbit's personality — tough, resourceful, self-assured — crystallized in Avery's A Wild Hare (1940); so did another Warners superstar, Bugs' perennial nemesis, that not-vewy-bwight huntew of wabbits, Elmer Fudd. Over the next 25 years, they'd collide in such classics as Freleng's The Wabbit Who Came To Supper (1942) and Slick Hare (1947), Clampett's The Old Gray Hare (1944) and The Big Snooze (1946), Jones' Hare Tonic (1945) and What's Opera, Doc? (1957). Bugs Bunny also appeared on his own in scores of cartoons, including such gems as Clampett's What's Cookin', Doc? (1944), Freleng's Racketeer Rabbit (1946) and Rhapsody Rabbit (1946), and Jones' Hair-Raising Hare (1946) and Bully For Bugs