Animal Testing Essay Research Paper Medicines household — страница 2

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clearly scientist used rabbits as their test subjects. They would force they eyes of the rabbit open and let mustard gas fester for days, they would then compare their findings to the effects on humans. After this first introduction to the benefits of eye irritancy tests its use began more useful. This method of toxicity tests is now used to test everything from shampoo to pesticides. Anti-vivisection activists consider this type of testing the most cruel because it directly damages a vital part of an animals body. Also, it is very hard to repair the eye due to its extreme sensitivity. The Draize Test is used to measure the harmfulness of ingredients contained in household products and cosmetics. It is much like they tests that were used to test mustard gas, but it is much more

scientific and in ways slightly crueler. The Draize testing involves dripping the test substance into a rabbit’s eye and recording the damage over three to twenty-one days. Scientists use rabbits for these tests because rabbits’ eyes have no tear ducts, so they are not able to wash away the irritant placed in their eyes, and their eyes are large enough for any inflammation to be clearly visible. Reactions can vary from a slight irritation to complete blindness. The rabbits are confined in restraining devices to prevent them from clawing at the injured eye. All of the animals are usually killed at the end of the testing period, or "recycled" into toxicity tests. A less painful area of testing is the sub-acute and sub-chronic tests. These tests last between one and

three months and use slightly less toxic doses then toxicity tests. The backs of the animals are shaved and the substance is placed under a tight plastic wrap, which is replaced with a clean wrap every two to five days. The results from these types of tests help scientists understand what harmful effect could happen to humans if came into contact with the chemicals that are in our everyday life. Although it seems as though it would hard to torture an animal on purpose, it happens more often in the medical field than is believable. It is for this reason that there have been many laws introduced to the medical research field. The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) has been amended several times. The latest amendment was passed in 1990, which concerned the welfare of guinea pigs, hamsters and

rabbits. It covers the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of these small laboratory animals. There is also a requirement that states that all animals must be given adequate veterinary care, must be separated by species and all experiments must be given with a minimum of pain. Anesthesia must also be given when there is a chance of pain, and if the pain that the animals endured was of too high of a standard then the animal must be euthanasia. With such strict requirements that need to be enforced there are a few laboratories that do not abide by every law, which creates cruelty and inhumane conditions for animals. There was a case in New York, too many animals had been packed into cages when beginning transported to research facilities, and they suffered from

cramping and over heating. The lack of adequate ventilation and extremes in temperature caused death to over 55 percent of the guinea pigs, hamsters and rabbits on their way to the research laboratory. This is not an isolated case, every year in Britain alone millions of animals suffer and die in laboratory experiments. They are burnt, scalded, poisoned and starved, given electric shocks and addicted to drugs, they are subjected to near freezing temperatures, reared in total darkness from birth and deliberately inflicted with disease like arthritis, cancer, diabetes, oral infections, stomach ulcers, syphilis, herpes and AIDS, (Sharpe, 13) they also have there eyes surgically removed, their brains damaged and the bones broken. In military research in the United States animals are

gassed poisoned with cyanide, shot with plastic bullets and deliberately wounded with high velocity missiles. It is treatment like this that makes the question of weather animal research should be continued come about. Every day in North America animals are poisoned blinded and burned in consumer product tests. Products ranging from mascara, shampoo and nail polish to oven cleaner, ink and children’s toys are tested on animals. When animals are used to further medical research it can be somewhat justified, but when animals are used to test cosmetics it is considered cruelty to animals. In many cases animals have been made to consume huge amounts of cosmetics, particularly lipsticks and waxes. In one experiment rats were forced fed up to twenty-five g/kg of several lipstick