AngloDutch Relations Essay Research Paper The geographical — страница 2

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lucrative trade in the Levant, Mediterranean, and Spain. The English were thus able to prosper in the south. In the Baltic, Germany, Russia, and Scandinavia however, the Netherlands were completely dominant. Thus, both countries prospered commercially, and were for the most part, in close political alliance as well. The dominance of Dutch commerce allowed the Republic to finance its way through a revolt that lasted eighty years. When peace was signed at Westphalia, the artificially supported trade balance between the two nations ceased to exist. As a result, the Dutch very quickly undercut the English in the southern markets. Largely as a result of Hugo Grotius masterful establishment of international maritime law, the English had no legal recourse to protest this new

development. This set the stage for the 1st Anglo-Dutch war, which was precipitated by Cromwell s Navigation Act and the seizure of Dutch ships by the English Navy and privateers. Although the English had the superior navy, and won the battles, Dutch economic primacy strangled the English ability to continue to fund the war, and terms were made. The 2nd Anglo-Dutch war was caused by almost identical reasons, and ended once again with the Dutch maintaining their hegemony. So great was the English drive to recapture the commerce they had lost, that in 1672, England allied with France in an attack on the Netherlands. By 1667, a turning point was reached in which many of the colonial disputes that had fueled the Anglo-Dutch conflicts were settled and international events began to

clear the way for the resumption of friendly relations between the two nations. Beginning in 1689 with William III s accession to the English throne, and continuing under Marlborough and Heinsius, England entered into and alliance with the Netherlands that was stronger and more powerful than any heretofore. We can now clearly perceive the basis for the rift in relations between the two nations, and indeed the reason for the oscillation 332