Английская грамматика

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WORD ORDER (1) - VERB + OBJECT;PLACE AND TIME. A)VERB+OBJECT. THE VERB AND THE OBJECT OF THE VERB NORMALLY GO TOGETHER.WE DO NOT USUALLY PUT OTHER WORDS BETWEEN THEM. VERB+OBJECT I LIKE CHILDREN VERY MUCH. (NOT 'I LIKE VERY MUCH CHILDREN') DID YOU NORMAN YESTERDAY. ANN OFTEN PLAYS TENNIS. *HERE ARE SOME OTHER EXAMPLES. NOTICE HOW EACH TIME THE VERB AND THE OBJECT GO TOGETHER: -DO YOU CLEAN THE HOUSE EVERY WEEKEND ? (NOT 'DO YOU CLEAN EVERY WEEKEND THE HOUSE') -EVERYBODY ENJOYED THE PARTY VERY MUCH. (NOT 'EVERYBODY ENJOYED VERY MUCH THE PARTY') FOR THE POSITION OF WORDS LIKE ALSO SEE THE NEXT PAGE. B)PLACE AND TIME. WE USUALLY SAY THE PLACE (WHERE?) BEFORE THE TIME.(WHEN?/HOW OFTEN?/HOW LONG?) PLACE TIME TOM WALKS TO WORK EVERY MORNING.(NOT 'TOM WAKS EVERY MORNING TO WORK') WE

HAS BEEN IN CANADA SINCE APRIL. WE ARRIVED AT AIRPORT EARLY. *IT IS OFTEN POSSIBLE TO PUT THE TIME AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SENTENCE: -ON MONDAY I'M GOING TO PARIS. -IN SUMMER I CYCLED A LOT. *NOTE THAT YOU CANNOT USE EARLY OR LATE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SENTENCE. The order of words in which the subject is placed after the predicate is called inveted order or inversion. Inversion occurs in the following cases: 1.In questions which are not put to the subject, e.g. Where can i find a more interesting book ? Are they still at home ? BUT: Who can answer my question ? 2.In exclamatory sentences expressing wish in which the verb is in the Subjunctive Mood, e.g. Long live the Soviet Army ! May you be happy and crazy ! 3.When the sentence is introduced by there, e.g. There was no wind.

~~~~~~ There have been many such incidents. 4.In the following constructions, e.g. You can do it and so can i. I must leave now.-So must i. I have never liked detective stories.-Neither have i. 5.In sentences introducing direct speech, e.g. "This is what i want",said my friend. "I think it's all delightful",murmured Emily. Inversion may be the result of emphasis,when the author wishes to produce a cetain stylistic effect.Here we must distiguish between the following cases: 6.The adverbial modifier of place or time opens the sentences (what is rare). In this case the subject is generally lengthy or modified by a phra- se or a clause, e.g. Down below spread the town with its wide streets,beautiful buld- ings,bridges and green parks. In the centre of the room of

the his flat stood the head of the family old Jolyon himself. 7.Adverbial modifiers expressed by such words as so,thus, then, here,now, there open the sentense. In this case the subject is expressed by a noun, e.g. So ended the terrible seige of my flat. Thus began their friendship. BUT: There she goes. (The subject is expressed by a pronoun.) 8.An adverbial modifier with a negative meaning opens the sentence: never in vain,little,etc., e.g. Never have i been so happy as now. Little did he think about it then. In vain did he try to persuade his friends to follow his example 9.The emphatic particle only (ont only...but) ¸ The adverbs hardly,scarcely (corrrlated with ³ the conjuction when) ³ open the sentence The adverb so sooner (correlated with the ³

conjuction than) ³ Or conjuction nor ¾ e.g. Onlt then did he understand it. No sooner had the German pilot caught sight of the soviet plane than began to fire. Hardly had we started when it began to rain. They did not come to the meeting.Nor did they telephone the sec- ratery. 10.Adverbial modifiers of amnner expressed by adverbs open the sentence, e.g. Loudly and cheerfully did the children greet him. Calmly and attentively did they listen to his story. 11.So followed by an adverbial modifier opens the sentence, e.g. So loudly did he speak that everybody could hear him. So perfectly did he do his work that it won the prize. 12.In vivid speech when the sentence begins with an adverb of direction: in,out,away,down (if the subject is expressed by a noun), e.g. Out came