Ancient Nubia Essay Research Paper Definition of

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Ancient Nubia Essay, Research Paper Definition of a civilization According to my definition of a civilization the ancient Nubian qualify in all fields. They have achieved a division of labor, which sparked advanced government, a written language, advanced technology, and a calendar. Division of labor During the Neolithic age, the Nubian people abandoned their hunter-gatherer society and adopted a new way of life, one with farming and raising animals. It created a division of labor. In the early stages there were a few basic occupations one could pursue. Farming, ranching, and medicine making were the most common of the early careers. As the Nubian civilization evolved many other occupations became available to the people. There were need for hotels, markets, bathhouses,

artist, priest, and blacksmiths. One could also take a career as a politician, military officer, record keeper or other careers related to the government. Trading was another way to go. Many people made a living by managing the trade with other countries or working on the trade ships. The division of labor required Nubian s to stay in one area rather than travel the land by seasons, and in turn that spawned all other aspects of their civilization. Advanced government Before the Nubians had kings or chiefs the people that usually controlled the population controlled the trade. Trade managers were the people who took farmer s cattle or crops and traded them up the river for whatever the farmer wanted. Nubia depended heavily on trade. Without it they would surely perish. Because of

this, trade managers eventually became the official rulers of Nubia. Nubia had established an early form of monarchy supported by three different rulers. The royal crown prince, the general of the river, and the prince of akin were the three main areas of power. All of these positions were hereditary. Though the rulers were the all-deciding power, religion played an important role in government, therefore priest, chosen by the kings, advised them in their decisions. Over time these priest became much like a legislature. They would discuss situations and laws, then report their conclusions to the king for the final decision. Written language The language written and spoken by Nubians actually came from Egypt. They started speaking it around 2000 b.c.c and began writing it between

900-600 b.c.c. The hieroglyphic script was mainly for royal or religious texts craved in stone. Though scarce, hieratic was used for letters, records, and things of that sort. It was a kind of shorthand hieroglyphic. The hieroglyphic script has about 750 signs. Most are pictures of people, animals, plants, or objects. Royal or holy names were written in a frame called cartouche to emphasize their importance. There are two main types of sign: sound-signs and sense-signs. Sound-signs can represent from one to four consonants. The vowels were not written out. A sense-sign can be used to write a word of placed after a word to show the area of meaning. For example, verbs of motion have a pair of legs attached. Usually noble men and priest were the only one s who knew the written

language. All Nubians understood the spoken language. Advanced technology The technology created by Nubia consisted of black smithing, irrigation, and materials but research in the area of construction and architecture dominated by far. Huge, multilevel and multi roomed tombs were constructed for fallen kings. The tombs, constructed as pyramids, were built with stone. Size usually varied from 45 ft wide and 375 ft high to 80 ft wide and 665 ft high. The pyramids were also very steep. The common slope angle was between 60 and 70 degrees. Of these pyramids the largest stretches 90 ft across and 750 ft high with a slope angle of 70 degrees. Among other constructions the Nubians built walls around all of their major cities. Houses were built of burned brick or mud mortar plastered