Anabolic Steroids Essay Research Paper Anabolic SteroidsDescriptionAnabolic — страница 2
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irregularities in their menstrual cycles. It causes the female voice to deepen and clitoral hypertrophy. Clitoral hypertrophy is the enlargement of the clitoris. Many of these things are irreversible, but some can be changed with the discontinuation of steroid use. In the cardiovascular system adverse effects can be very deadly. When taking steroids an increase in LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol and a decrease in HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol occurs in the bloodstream. This can carry a risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarctions. They can also cause retention of fluids. High blood pressure can cause an increased risk of congestive heart failure and strokes. The adverse effects in the musculoskeletal systems are not life threatening, but they are very noticeable. Younger steroids users can have a premature closure of the epiphyses (growth plates) in the long bones. This irreversibly limits the full adult height potential. With the use of steroids, muscle/tendon strength changes. The muscles become stronger, but the tendons become stiffer and less able to withstand force. This causes an increase in muscle strains or ruptures. The central nervous system is also effected by the use of steroids. In the person taking steroids, aggressive behavior, self confidence and a sense of well being are seen. Also manic mood swings can occur. These mood swings can range from euphoria to sexual arousal to irritability and hostility. Cognitive impairment can also set in on the user. Cognitive impairment can involve distractibility, forgetfulness, and confusion. History: The use of steroids is nothing new to the world. Since the time of the Greek Olympics athletes have been using performance enhancing drugs in order to heighten their athletic performance. In 1886 the 1st person to die due to performance enhancing drugs was a French cyclist. He took a speed-ball, a mix of cocaine and heroin, which eventually killed him. Physicians in the 20’s ran tests on athletes by inserting monkey testicles into male athletes to help boost their vitality. Adolf Hitler supposedly administered the hormone testosterone to himself and his troops in order to increase aggressiveness. In 1953 the first anabolic steroid was introduced. It had five times more strength building effects than natural hormones. In the 1960’s the IOC (International Olympic Committee) started to ban performance enhancing drugs due to their popular use. At the 1976 summer games in Montreal, the IOC initiated the first testing for steroids. Today testing is done routinely on the collegiate and international level. The USOC (United States Olympic Committee) can suspend an athlete for up to two years if caught using steroids. Repeat offenders may be suspended from competing on the Olympic level for life. The NCAA does year round testing regardless if the athlete is in season or not. Selected teams are notified two days in advance of being tested, and 18 players are tested at that time. Positive testing results in a one year suspension of the student athlete. Signs of use: The physical signs that are portrayed by steroid users are extremely noticeable. They include:Rapid weight gain Alterations in body composition, with marked muscle hypertrophy Disproportionate development of the upper torso Severe acne Needle marks in large muscle groups Development of male pattern baldness Gynecomastia (breast enlargement) Increased susceptibility to tendon strains and injuries More frequent hematoma or bruising Jaundice Elevated blood pressure Hirsutism (abnormal development of facial / body hair) Atrophied breasts in females Deepening of the voice in females Legal penalties: The use of steroids can carry a maximum of 10 years in prison. Also a fine can be imposed in addition to the jail sentence, or by itself. The fine can be as high as $250,000. Statistics: 260,000 students in grades 7 to 12 either use or have used steroids. The American Heart Assoc. estimates at least half of all Division I college football players have used steroids over a substantial period of time. Black market steroids are topping sales of $400 million per year. One million Americans, half of them adolescents use black market steroids. In order to obtain good muscle mass building a person may have to consume 10,000 calories / day or the steroids will be useless.