Anabolic Steroids Essay Research Paper Anabolic steroids

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Anabolic Steroids Essay, Research Paper Anabolic steroids (steroids for short) are used widely among bodybuilders to increase their testosterone, thus to get ?stacked? or larger. Steroids seem to be a wonderful thing for these bodybuilders, but very few of them know just how they work and what the effects are. History The word ?anabolic? portrays any substance, which accumulates nitrogen in muscle protein and from there builds muscle tissue. The body?s natural anabolic steroid is called testosterone, which men (naturally) obtain more of, than women do. Testosterone brings on the development of speed, mass, endurance, definition, and strength. Testosterone is naturally released into the blood stream, goes to different locations, accomplishes its goal, and is broken down by

enzymes. This process is done rather quickly. Eventually chemists discovered how to modify testosterone molecules to make them last longer, and this is how anabolic steroids came into play. What Steroids do (biologically)? In a normal body, the procedures of catabolism (breaking down and removal of old cells) and anabolism (building up of new cells) are in an equilibrium. When anabolic steroids are used, this balance is thrown off by the supremacy of the building up of new cells, and from cells come muscle, so therefore muscle mass is increased. As previously stated, all anabolic steroids are chemical derivatives of testosterone. Because testosterone has a short biological half-life, pharmacological use requires the steroid to be altered to slow metabolism by the liver. Commonly,

oral steroids are modified by alkylation (replacing H with a CH4 group), and injectable steroids are modified by esterification of the hydroxyl group. Anabolic steroids work by coupling with the cytoplasmic androgen receptor, where the steroid-receptor complex moves into the nucleus and binds to DNA. The steroid and receptor may also dissociate in the nucleus and act on DNA separately, but it is uncertain if this actually happens. Testosterone may also inhibit the catabolic pathway associated with glucocorticoids, but this is also uncertain as to whether this is affiliated with an interaction between testosterone and glucocorticoid or the nuclear manner of the steroid-receptor complex. In the nucleus steroids seem to intensify specific gene material. Then mRNA is prepared to be

sent out of the nucleus, leaving increased protein synthesis. If the complex inhibits the catabolic enzymes then it is possible that catabolic inhibition may also occur in the nucleus. By looking at the concentration of the androgen receptor, it is an example of how sensitive it is. Skeletal muscle typically contains 0.5-3 femto (1E-12) moles per milligram of protein, at the same time other androgen sensitive organs, may have up to 25 times more receptors. Oral Steroids and their effect on The Liver Oral steroids have a negative effect on the liver due to the fact that they have an alkyl group (methyl or ethyl) assembled at the 17-alpha position. The 17-beta hydroxyl (OH) is now changed from a secondary to an unoxidizable teritary one (an irregular disfigure), which obstructs the

natural hepatic oxidation of the 17 hydroxyl group. When this metabolic inactivation is blocked, the liver turns to less proficient and more complex mechanisms of inactivation. Injectable steroids are conceived to go in the system and get hydrolyzed and become a natural metabolizable secondary 17-beta hydroxyl steroid, and are not considered to be dangerous to the liver. Common/Known Effects of Steroid Use Water retention is a known sign of a steroid user. Usually the neck and facial are become puffy, or puffier than normal. It may be hard to recognize in someone you first met, but once his or her steroid use is complete, you can see the difference. Acne is another effect through steroid use. A person who has never had a problem can develop one from steroids. Also acne can appear