An Examination Of Rape Studies Essay Research — страница 2

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the scientist, in the case of this report the Psychologist, understanding which theories the scientist base their logic on will allow the lay person to get a better idea of the myths . The three theories that I am about to summarize are deal with the act of rape, and not the rapist or the rape victim. The first theory is the Feminist Theory of Rape . It is a common belief that all rapes are carried out for the soul purpose of sexual gratification. The Feminist Theory , however, does not assume sex to be the prime motive for rape. In this theory rape is seen to be cause by a deep-rooted social tradition in which males have dominated nearly all important political and economic activities. Rape is seen as factors of power and control instead of sex. The supporters of this theory

look at rape figures of different cultures around the world; it is found that the less rights a culture gives its females the higher the numbers of rape incidents Rapes occur more in America then any other industrialized country. It is this theory that leads way to a major Rape Myth : rapist only rape for sex. Though this may be true when generalizing all rapes, calling this a Rape Myth may be premature the reasons will be made clearer when we look at the ways in which we define Rape Myths . It is true that sex may not be the prime factor in most types of rape, but, in date rape, which accounts for most of the rapes committed in America, sex is, in the majority of the cases, the prime factor for this type of rape. The second theory of rape is the Social Learning Theory . This

theory is very alike to the the Feminist Theory of Rape , in that they both blame social influences as a cause for rape. It is the motivational factors that the two theories differ on. The Social Learning Theory is quicker to use sexual frustration and aggression as the prime cause of rape, but incorporate other social factors (pornographic influences and misguided cognitive dating scripts, for example). The third, and most controversial, is the unpopular Evolutionary theory of rape. This theory looks at the natural mating process. Evolution has giving different tendencies to males and females, in all species including humans. In respect to reproduction, females allocate their time to caring for offspring while males emphasize time to copulating with as many sexual partners as

possible. Evolutionary scientist believe males have a stronger likely hood to evolve traits that would give them better chances of inseminating large groups of female. If this is true forced copulation, or rape, may have been a reflection of the rules of natural selection . Now that we have a basic idea of the major theories of rape, we can look at Rape myths . A myth would be defined as a false belief that the society holds true. The major reasons for Rape myth are Sexual Conservatism, Adversarial Sexual Beliefs, and Sex-Role Stereotyping. Sexual Conservatism looks at the moral circumstances that sexual actives should accrue. Because rape normally violates aspects of conservative stances, there maybe a tendency to over looked the force aspect and blame the victim for being in

the situation. Adversarial Sexual Beliefs uses the idea that it is normal to be manipulative in sexual relationships. Each partner is trying to cheat the other; a person holding this belief might think that rape is just the extreme side of this manipulative spectrum. Sex-Role Stereotyping is the idea of gender expectations. Females are put in a passive role in sexual situations, and males are expected to be more aggressive. We now have the reasons one might develop a Rape Myth we must understand how a researcher would go about the process of categorizing a belief as a Rape Myth . There are many problems in classifying Rape Myths , as caused by the numerous schools of thought (psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and sociology). There are basic fundamental characteristics that

all the school share: cases that support Rape Myths tend to be highly publicized, though the majority of cases may contradict the myths; many myths are almost impossible to verify; and that they are best conceptualized as stereotypes. It is important in our society to be able to distinguish between true beliefs and Rape Myths because these schemas are echoed in our jury verdicts (for rapist and victims alike), our public policy decisions (shown in the adoptions of Rape Shield laws), and our personal reaction to survivors of sexual violence (rather than being shunned by society women may be more likely to suffer rape victimization and not report the crime to any authorities). In 1990 a candidate for the governorship of Texas said, Rainy weather is like a woman being raped; if it s