An Analogy Of Civilized Man To Primitive — страница 2
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cow-headed goddess who protects the city of the dead is present. Also present is a hawk or falcon, symbol of the god Horus. Another example of animal worship in ancient Egypt was the ?family God,? Bes. This was a grotesque creature, part dwarf and part lion. His job was to protect the family, and was found in many homes. On judgment day, an Egyptian believed he would face the Jackal Judge. A heart heavy with sin would tip the scales and a terrible monster would devour the sinner. If someone lived a virtuous life, the scales would balance, and the person would have eternal bliss. ( Arts and Culture, An Introduction to The Humanities, p 8 Fertility and a renewal of things, birth of people and animals, the seasons, and of vegetation used for food sources were also very important to early man, as it was to early-civilized man. What is believed to be a fertility figure, the Venus of Willendorf, was found that dates to 30,000 years ago. (Quest For The Past, p 12 ) Also, the cave paintings represent what is thought to be a ?mother earth? theory. That is, by painting the animals so close to the center, or womb of the earth, more animals would be born. ( Everyday Life Through The Ages, p 17 ) Early civilizations also focused on fertility, and created Gods to ensure continued fertility of the population. In early Mesopotamia, the Sumarians worshipped Ninhursag, or Mother Earth. She was the source of all life, and from her came the birth of plants. Daily sacrifices were also made to the Gods in temples in every major city in Mesopotamia. The most important of these was a spring ritual called the New Year Holiday. After several days of ceremony, a ?Sacred Marriage? took place between the King, who took the role of Dumuzi, an early ruler of the town Erech. A high priestess would take the roll of Inanna, who was the principle deity of Erech. This ritual re-enactment of the original ceremony, according to legend, would ensure the fertility of the land, and the king?s long life. ( Cradle Of Civilization, p 106 ) Gods of fertility are seen throughout the early civilizations. Eros, the God of love and Aphrodite, the Goddess of love, were worshipped by the Greeks, the Snake Goddess by the Minoan?s, and Cupid and Venus, by the Romans. The concept of a life after death has been with mankind at least since we dwelled in caves. Archeologist?s have uncovered evidence in cave dwellings that support this theory. Stone Age graves have been found that contain not only the remains of a person, but pollen evidence that a ceremony followed the persons death. Axes, spears, and ?throwing sticks? have been found in many graves. These are items that would be needed by the person in the afterlife. The graves were often located under the fire pit, which would have been considered a sacred place by early man. ( Everyday Life Through The Ages, p 17 ) Fire, among other ?magical? things, would have been worshipped by a cave dwelling people. ( The Book Of The Ancient World, p 6 ) We find that the Romans had a strong belief in an afterlife also. Pharaoh would be entombed with riches, food, and servants to provide for him in the afterlife. ( The Book Of The Ancient World, p 25 ) The word government comes from the Latin word, gubernare, which means, ?to steer a ship.? Among primitive people that live today, the leader may be only the oldest person in the tribe, and therefore respected. People tend to follow those that are respected. ( The Third Chimpanzee, p 220 ) It might be that the leader of an early culture might well have been the best hunter, organizer and the strongest man in the village. In ancient Mesopotamia, Greece, and Rome, just to name a few, the kings or rulers were anointed as God-Kings. It is not unthinkable to consider that somewhere in early human development, the duties and responsibilities of the shaman might have become joined with those of the tribal leader. This would have allowed a tribal leader to, ?steer the ship? while at the same time provide answers to the multitude of questions about the mysterious world these stone age people lived in. It has been thought that stone age man relied totally upon storytelling to pass needed information from one generation to another. This has theory has recently been found to be inaccurate. Ice age relics now support the view that stone age man was more sophisticated that previously thought. Rock are and tools have been discovered in Australia which date to 100,000 years ago. (The Way Of The World, p 19, 20) Pebbles and other stone surfaces have been found with markings engraved on them, that date to the time of the last Ice Age. Alexander Marshack, of the Harvard University was able to decode these engraved markings. Dr.