Американская мечта и возможность её осуществления в России (The American Dream like a social phenomenon and the possibility of it's realization in Russia) — страница 2

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the American dream are usually framed in terms of American capitalism, its associated meritocracy, and the freedoms guaranteed by the U.S. Bill of Rights. The term is not easily defined, and has subjective meaning to many who claim it. The American Dream is often associated with immigration, as the dream of religious freedom, economic prosperity, and meritocracy has historically driven immigrants to the United States. The term is used by many modern Americans to signify success in life as a result of hard work (as in, "living [or pursuing] the American Dream"). The origin of the American Dream, a term coined by James Truslow Adams in his book "The Epic of America" (1931), stems from the departure in government and economics from the models of the Old World.

This allowed unprecedented freedom, especially the possibility of dramatic upward social mobility. Additionally, from the American Revolutionary War well into the later half of the nineteenth century, many of America's physical resources were unclaimed and held out the promise of land ownership and lucky investment in land or industry. The development of the Industrial Revolution combined with the great natural resources of the enormous and as yet unsettled (by Europeans) continent created the possibility of achieving wealth and transitioning "from rags to riches". The terrible living conditions in Europe and the hope of a better standard of living in America led to the migration of hundreds of thousands to the new world. Impoverished western Europeans escaping the

Irish potato famines in Ireland, the Highland clearances in Scotland and the aftermath of Napoleon in the rest of Europe came to America to escape a poor quality of life at home. They wanted to embrace the financial mobility and constitutional freedoms that existed in the United States. The Industrial Revolution was one of the great forces that developed the American Dream. The Industrial Revolution, amidst all the government corruption of the Gilded Era, resulted in the creation of hundreds of thousands of jobs. The development of big business, the Transcontinental Railroad, and the increase in oil production greatly increased the American standard of living. "Rags to riches" stories of business tycoons like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller led to the belief

that if you had talent, intelligence, and a willingness to work extremely hard, you were more likely to live a good life. The stories of many successful people of that time seem to be fairy tales but they are truthful lifestories. The best example is John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937), an American industrialist who played a prominent role in the early oil industry with the founding of Standard Oil (ExxonMobil is the largest of its descendants. ).He was second of six children and his father was was a traveling salesman of dubious products, such as "cancer cures," a philanderer and bigamist. 16-year-old Rockefeller began his career as an apprentice bookkeeper at Hewitt & Tuttle for 50 cents a day. His seriousness, diligence, and honesty led

to steadily increasing responsibilities and pay over the next two years. Nevertheless, Rockefeller reached the point where he felt he was no longer getting paid according to his contribution and, in 1859, left to form his own produce commission business with a partner, Maurice Clark. Clark & Rockefeller quickly became a successful firm, and its partners accumulated enough capital to invest in other Cleveland businesses. His business became more and more successfull. In the early 1870s,he established Standard Oil company, which soon become one of the largest shippers of oil and kerosene in the country.Over a forty-year period, Rockefeller built Standard Oil into the largest and most profitable company in the world, and was for a time the richest man in the world. His business

career was controversial. He was bitterly attacked by muckraking journalists; his company was convicted in federal court of monopolistic practices and broken up in 1911. He spent his last forty years focused on philanthropic pursuits, primarily related to education and public health, eventually giving away most of his wealth. Rockefeller and many other businessmen reached thir wellfare only by their hard work and intelligence. Jack London in his novel "Martin Iden" also described a character of an illiterate "a self made man" sailor, a hardworking, determined, persistant person, who was not afraid of any type of work, energetic and composed,so that he could learn the everithing from reading to philosophy by himself that’s why became a famous wrighter and