American Black Essay Research Paper Midterm Essay — страница 2

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use in the new industry and that their lives and hearts were in Ireland and would always remain there. The African American flow was similar in that the majority of the people migrating were young. This generation was the post civil war generation they were restless, dissatisfied, unwilling to mask their true selves and accommodate to traditional subservient roles. (II, 344) But also the older generation, who were former slaves, headed north as well to find better lives and to escape prejudice that they endured throughout their lives. The economic incorporation of any group of people is achieved through employment in that economy. For Irish immigrants, they found their employment to be typically manual labor. They worked on mainly construction projects, canals, railroads, and

roads. They were also a fair amount of Irish who became miners. Irish women did domestic work. They were maids, nannies and seamstresses, to name a few. Also children were put to work. They would work in factories and mines, doing clean up or coal sifting jobs. But during this time, being Irish meant that you had no skills and were lacking the habits of punctuality and industry. (I, 150) So employers limited the jobs that Irish immigrants could have to just manual labor jobs that required no skills. But this would change; the children of the Irish immigrants were being educated and were attending college in huge numbers. This allowed the Irish to redefine how they were viewed in the economy, they moved away from physical labor jobs to white-collar jobs. African Americans were in

the same situation as the Irish when it came to economic incorporation. The Blacks that moved north were sharecroppers who had little to no education. But the war increased the demand for labor, which Blacks saw as a sign to help better them in this non-agricultural economy. They also wanted to distance themselves from domestic work, which they were limited to before. By 1920, the majority of black men were employed in factories. (II, 349) But the biggest way African Americans put them into the economy firmly was the development of their community in the cities that they lived in. Black business, political and religious leaders preached to the black community to take the money that they earned and spend it within the black community. Why should these dollars be spent with white

men ? If white men are so determined that Negroes must live separate and apart, why not beat them at their own game? (II, 352) So they did; they built up their community with Black owned stores, banks and various other financial, and social institutions. This allowed their communities to flourish and develop. Not only did it increase the stature of blacks in a specific city, but also they would be able to move up in the job ladder and thus opening up more opportunities in the economic sphere. (IV) The location that the settlement of Irish immigrants in the U.S. was very important in how they integrated themselves into the socio-political arena in the United States. The Irish were able to make great leaps in their economic development by settling in cities and not in the country

(I, 161). This was the norm in the city of Boston. Boston was primarily a Protestant city, but Irish immigrants built themselves a network through their religion and established a large community, ultimately they would become the majority since most Irish did not want to return to Ireland and preferred to become Americans. This put them in a good position to now put them into the political sphere of the U.S. Since they were white, they were able to get citizenship more easily than other immigrants. Also they had the right to vote, another benefit of being white immigrants (I, 162). Now they could elect Irish politicians into local, state and national offices, thus putting Irish influence into the political arena. For the African Americans , settlement anywhere from the South was

the ultimate goal. The majority of black migrants had no wish to return to the South where they were being oppressed to no limits and the future was bleak. As they settled into the ghettos of New York, Chicago and Detroit, their communities developed (III, 617). But the color of the skin extremely hampered their ability to enter the political arena. They were still viewed as third class people and with the Irish gaining more power in politics; Blacks had opposition to them increasing every moment. Also not having the right to vote prevented Black politicians to come into power and attempt to put fourth reform to help African Americans. But through the establishment of the NAACP, blacks had a voice that would be heard. (II, 368) But without the right to vote, having a very large