America Pathway Tto The Present Chp23 Essay

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America Pathway Tto The Present Chp2-3 Essay, Research Paper 1. (A) Reformation- a new complication arose in the early 1500s, when a powerful religious movement, the Reformation, brought bitter divisions to Europe. During the Reformation, a new Christian faith, called Protestantism, developed in protest against what was seen as the corruption and inadequery of Catholic Church. Because the English were Protestant and the Irish were Catholic, the Reformation also heightened the conflict between the English and the Irish. (B) Joint Stock Company-They called the new village Jamestown in honor of their king, James I. The land itself they called Virginia, after their last ruler, Elizabeth, who had never married and bore the title ?Virgin Queen.? The 104 adventures who started the

colony were shareholders in the Virginia Company, a joint stock company established in London in 1606. Investors, or shareholders, who each contributed money to the cots of an enterprise, and expected a share of profit, organized joint stock companies like the Virginia Company. Most of the investors in Virginia Company remained in England. But young men could earn a share by simply paying their way to Virginia. At first the colony was made up exclusively of men; women and children eventually followed. (C) Indentured Servants- To produce tobacco, planters needed people to work the fields. During the first sixty years after the founding of the colony, they turned primarily to indentured servants from England. These were people who had to work for a master for a period of time,

usually seven years, under a contract called an indenture. In return for their work, their master paid the cost of their voyage to Virginia and gave them food and shelter. Some indentures promised a piece of land to the servant at the end of the indentured period. Historians estimate that between 100,000 and 150,000 men and women came as servants to work in the fields of Virginia and Maryland during the 1600s. Most of them were eighteen to twenty-two years of age, unmarried, and poor. Few of the indentured servants lived long enough to claim their land at the end of their service. Exposure to the climate and diseases of the Chesapeake Bay killed them in horrendous numbers. (D) Enclosure Movement- Land owners had found that they could make more money from raising livestock than

they could collect rent from tenant farmers. The landowners forced their tenants to leave and turned fields into pasture, or enclosed them. Many people in Europe lost their homes as a result of this enclosure movement. Thus, England was swarming with young people in search of food and work. Called, ?masterless? men and women because they had no master, or employer, they had few other choices besides signing indentures to work for land in Virginia. 2. (A) Powhatan- Most of them recognized the authority of one powerful group, the Pamunkey people. They particularly honored the Pamunkey leader, Powhatan. Paying him tribute- =a kind of tax-in skins, beads, and food. Within weeks of the first attack on the English, several Englishmen traveled to neighboring Native American villages to

offer tribute of their own and to persuade the Native American that their intentions in settling in the area were good. Powhatan had every reason to distrust those intentions. The Spanish had captured Powhatan?s brother, Opechancanough, in the 1560s. Doubtless Opechancanough and Powhatan understood well that the settlement was a threat to their people?s way of life. (B) John Smith- The Adventures had migrated to Virginia to become wealthy by living off the work of others. In Europe wealthy landowners did little physical work. When me who were or wanted to be gentlemen came to Virginia, their leader John Smith found it difficult to get them to work at all. Even when they were starving, many men simply refused to compromise their image of themselves as gentlemen by growing corn. In