America And The Computer Industry Essay Research — страница 4
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cheaper, yet more productive version of the Altair andturned their hobby into a business (Fluegelman, 16). After the introduction of the Altair 8800, the personal computerindustry became a fierce battleground of competition. IBM had been thecomputer industry standard for well over a half-century. They heldtheir position as the standard when they introduced their first personalcomputer, the IBM Model 60 in 1975 (Chposky, 156). However, the newlyformed Apple Computer company was releasing its own personal computer,the Apple II (The Apple I was the first computer designed by Jobs andWozniak in Wozniak+s garage, which was not produced on a wide scale). Software was needed to run the computers as well. Microsoft developed aDisk Operating System (MS-DOS) for the IBM computer while Appledeveloped its own software system (Rose, 37). Because Microsoft had nowset the software standard for IBMs, every software manufacturer had tomake their software compatible with Microsoft+s. This would lead tohuge profits for Microsoft (Cringley, 163). The main goal of the computer manufacturers was to make thecomputer as affordable as possible while increasing speed, reliability,and capacity. Nearly every computer manufacturer accomplished this andcomputers popped up everywhere. Computers were in businesses keepingtrack of inventories. Computers were in colleges aiding students inresearch. Computers were in laboratories making complex calculations athigh speeds for scientists and physicists. The computer had made itsmark everywhere in society and built up a huge industry (Cringley, 174). The future is promising for the computer industry and itstechnology. The speed of processors is expected to double every yearand a half in the coming years. As manufacturing techniques are furtherperfected the prices of computer systems are expected to steadily fall. However, since the microprocessor technology will be increasing, it+shigher costs will offset the drop in price of older processors. In otherwords, the price of a new computer will stay about the same from year toyear, but technology will steadily increase (Zachary, 42) Since the end of World War II, the computer industry has grownfrom a standing start into one of the biggest and most profitableindustries in the United States. It now comprises thousands ofcompanies, making everything from multi-million dollar high-speedsupercomputers to printout paper and floppy disks. It employs millionsof people and generates tens of billions of dollars in sales each year(Malone, 192). Surely, the computer has impacted every aspect ofpeople+s lives. It has affected the way people work and play. It hasmade everyone+s life easier by doing difficult work for people. Thecomputer truly is one of the most incredible inventions in history. Chposky, James. Blue Magic. New York: Facts on File Publishing. 1988. Cringley, Robert X. Accidental Empires. Reading, MA: Addison WesleyPublishing, 1992. Dolotta, T.A. Data Processing: 1940-1985. New York: John Wiley & Sons,1985. Fluegelman, Andrew. +A New World+, MacWorld. San Jose, Ca: MacWorldPublishing, February, 1984 (Premire Issue). Hall, Peter. Silicon Landscapes. Boston: Allen & Irwin, 1985Gulliver, David. Silicon Valey and Beyond. Berkeley, Ca: Berkeley AreaGovernment Press, 1981. Hazewindus, Nico. The U.S. Microelectronics Industry. New York:Pergamon Press, 1988. Jacobs, Christopher W. +The Altair 8800+, Popular Electronics. NewYork: Popular Electronics Publishing, January 1975. Malone, Michael S. The Big Scare: The U.S. Coputer Industry. GardenCity, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1985. Osborne, Adam. Hypergrowth. Berkeley, Ca: Idthekkethan PublishingCompany, 1984. Rogers, Everett M. Silicon Valey Fever. New York: Basic Books, Inc.Publishing, 1984. Rose, Frank. West of Eden. New York: Viking Publishing, 1989. Shallis, Michael. The Silicon Idol. New York: Shocken Books, 1984. Soma, John T. The History of the Computer. Toronto: Lexington Books,1976. Zachary, William. +The Future of Computing+, Byte. Boston: BytePublishing, August 1994.