Alvarado Massacre Essay Research Paper During the — страница 2

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Castillo states on page 286 On hearing this Cortes exclaimed very angrily that it was a bad thing and a great mistake, and that he wished to God Montezuma had escaped and he had never had to listen to this story, (286). From the interpretations Castillo s made about the Alvarado massacre his prejudice view toward Pedro is evident. Bernal Diaz Del Castillo old age and lack of economic prosperity after the colonization of the New World contributes to his bias view of Pedro. Bernal finished his book at the age of seventy-six. Because of his age he would glorify unimportant historical events while denouncing significant incidents. Even though some historians like J.M Cohen viewed the author s age as a problem because it resulted in the imprecise historical data the true dilemma was

that Castillo remained poor after the expedition. Diaz finished his book during the year 1568 but died during the year 1581. From the middle to the end of the sixteenth century changes began to take place in Mexico. A shift in powers from the conquistadors to the religious sphere began to take shape along with the introduction of haciendas. These two new innovations diminished the conquistador s high-class status and destroyed their everyday income. Conquistadors were remembered for their colonization but things changed with time and soon the men became insignificant. Bernal Diaz Del Castillo realized his one time important role was becoming a memory and as he looked at his surroundings he saw that he was poor fifty years after Cortes expedition. As he sat down to write his book

he wrote it with resentment blaming his fellow conquistadors like Pedro de Alvarado for their foolish reactions toward the Mexicans. However, Castillo was one of the many historical figures who held Pedro and his soldiers accountable for the revolt against the Indians. Dominican fray Diego Duran finished book on the history of “Mexica” in 1581. Unlike his adversary Franciscan Fray Bernardino de Sahgun who completed his work in 1586, Duran blames Hernando Cortes for the revolt while Sahagun blames Pedro de Alvarado and his armymen for the encounter. The difference of opinions is evident when reading both of their documents on the massacre. Diego Duran states The day for the festivities having arrived, some eight or ten thousand men of the highest order and purest lineage

appeared, wearing all their finery as we have said, and formed a great circle in the temple courtyard. While they were dancing, all with contentment and pleasure, Cort s, instigated by Alvarado, ordered ten soldiers to be placed at each of the four gates of the courtyard so that no one could escape. He sent ten others to stand next to those who were beating drums where the most important lords had gathered. The soldiers were told to kill the drummers and after them all those who surrounded them (2). While Duran accuses Cortes for the battle Sahgun writes that Cortes was not present during the attack. Sahgun document reads How hatred and war between the Spaniards and the Mexicans broke out in the absence of Captain Don Hernando Cort s, according to the Spaniards’ Account. Seeing

themselves hotly pursued by the Mexicans, the Spaniards entered the royal houses and fortified and barricaded themselves as best they could to keep the Indians out. From inside they began to defend themselves, firing off crossbows, harquebuses, and cannon, and even aiming stones from the rooftop to drive off the Indians struggling to break down the wall and force their way in, (2). The two men offered two different perspectives but their main motivation were to accuse the Spaniards or to accuse the Indians for the revolt in order to justify their significance in the religious sphere. In 1524 the first twelve Franciscans arrived in New Spain invited by Hernando Cortes. Since the Fryers did not have a direct connection with the crown Cortes welcomed them to New Spain, giving them

land and placing them as the second most powerful men in Mexico. Their sole responsibilities were to convert the Mexicans. By the middle of the sixteenth century the mendicants had established churches, hospitals, schools, and confraternities and enforced the methods of compadrazgo, and capellania, (Cline). Angry that the Franciscans were more powerful than the Dominicans were, the secular clergy did everything possible to diminish their reputation by connecting them with Cortes presence during the Alvarado massacre. Since Cortes originally brought the Franciscans to New Spain, Friar Diego Duran composed a book holding Cortes responsible for the revolt. Even though Duran creates a new perspective his argument is extreme compared to Saharan s realistic theory of Cortes absence in