Alternate Sources Of Electri Essay Research Paper

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Alternate Sources Of Electri. Essay, Research Paper Alternate Sources of Electricity: Wind Power Wind is created from an unequal heating of the earths atmosphere therefore wind is an indirect form of solar energy. Convection currents, which occur due to the fact that warm air rises and cooler air drops, produces this cycle of air or wind. Some of the suns energy directly heats the air but mostly the heat is transferred form the earth into the atmosphere. Between 1 – 2% of the solar radiation that reaches the Earth is converted into energy in the wind. 1. Seasonal variations in the speed and direction of the wind result from the seasonal changes angle of the Earths spin relative to the Sun. Daily variations are caused by the different speeds of heating different surfaces,

for example land and oceans heat up at different speeds.2 The force excreted by wind on a propeller or some sort of mechanical instrument is used to create motion. Thus converting mechanical energy into electrical is not a problem. The process is the reverse of an electric motor which uses a magnet to force the shaft to spin. Likewise if the shaft spins it will induce a magnetic field thus providing electricity. There are three basic physical laws governing the amount of energy available from the wind. The first law states that the power generated by the turbine is proportional to the wind speed cubed. For example if the wind speed doubles, the power available increases by a factor of eight; if the wind speed triples then twenty seven times more power is available. Therefore a

proposed site must have a very fast wind a lot of the time to generate electricity. It is very expensive to deploy lots of wind turbines if each is only going to produce very little electricity. The second law states that the power available is directly proportional to the swept area of the blades. That is the power is proportional to the square of the blade length. For example, doubling the blade length will increase the power by four times, and tripling the blade length will increase the power by nine times. The third law states that there is a maximum theoretical efficiency of wind generators of 59%. In practice, most wind turbines are much less efficient than this, and different types are designed to have maximum efficiency at different wind speeds. The best wind generators

have efficiencies of about 35 – 40%. 3. Wind is not a reliable source of energy in some areas. Compared to coal power plants which can rely on constant output the wind generators may produce a satisfying out one season and be inoperable the in the next. Although harnessing the kinetic energy of the wind is a very good source of energy as it is renewable in the sense that no natural resource is being used up it cannot compare to the output of a coal power plant. In the short term the coal power is cheaper with a lot less hassles. However coal burning produces a large about of greenhouse gases and not last forever. Wind power generators are 100% pollution and greenhouse gas free with a number of different models, which are designed for different wind speeds. A factor in designing

a generator is its use. More efficiency can be achieved if a generator is designed for lower speeds in the areas it is going to be used. Another factor, which must be kept in mind, is that such generators must not spin faster then their designed speed. For this problem a protection system must be designed to slow down the rotation of the rotor. appendix 3. This can be implemented in three different ways. The system can be shut down to avoid damage, mechanical breaks could be used or the angle of the rotor compared to the wind direction can be changed to decrease the area, which the wind hits. The system also has to be designed to turn the rotor in the direction of the wind while in normal use. Known as the directional system, it can be implemented by a tail assembly, or by a