Alfred Berhard Nobel Essay Research Paper Alfred — страница 3

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Arthur von Suttner. Nobel was deeply upset and hurt, but despite of this incident Alfred and Bertha von Suttner remained good friends and wrote letters back and forth for decades and decades. Bertha von Suttner went on to become a prominent woman in many aspects. She wrote a book entitled, Lay Down Your Arms, which became very famous. She was also a leader in the peace movement of that era. Aware of this, Nobel was greatly inspired by Bertha von Suttner. He was very proud of her accomplishments and chose to include her in his final will. His last will and testament read as follows: “The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way. The capital shall be invested by my executors in safe securities and shall constitute a fund, the interest on

which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics; one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical discovery or improvements; one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency; and one part to the person who shall have done the most or best work for fraternity

among nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses. The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical works by the Caroling Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm; and that for champions of peace by a committee for five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting. It is my express wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration whatever shall be given to the nationality of the candidates, so that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be a Scandinavian or not.” This was written in Paris on November 27, 1985. [http://www.hotchkiss.k12.co.us/HHS/nobelnov/nobel.htm]Soon after the writing of

the will, Nobel passed away (in 1896). Per his request, two young engineers, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, created the Nobel Peace Prize. They set up the Nobel Foundation as an organization to take care of the financial assets left by Nobel for this purpose and to coordinate the work of the Prize-Awarding Institutions. [http://www.nobel.se/nobel/Alfred-nobel/biographical/life-work/index.html] Nine years later on December 10, 1905 (the anniversary of Nobel’s death), the Nobel Peace Prize was ironically awarded to Bertha von Suttner. [http://www.njabr.org/superstars/laureates/Anobel.cfm] It has been over 100 years since Alfred Bernhard Nobel died and the industry that he founded has gone though some dramatic changes. People slowly began to realize the importance and

significance of explosives, as far as industrial development goes. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries explosives were necessary for making cheaper coal, providing metallic ores in industry, and also in developing modern transport systems. [http://school-for-champions.com/biographies/nobel.htm] It is sad to say that the significance of explosives was never fully appreciated during Nobel’s own life. Because of all the harassment he received from the media and from the people saying he was a war promoter, this is why his final testament contained a request for the Nobel Prizes. [www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWnobel.htm] One of the prizes, as stated in his testament, was to be named the “Nobel Peace Prize” and be given to ‘the person who has done most

and best work for the brotherhood of nations as well as for the establishment and spread of peace congresses.’ Perhaps Nobel’s nickname, “The Merchant of Death,” should have been changed to “The Merchant of Peace.” [http://www.nobel-enterprises.com/alfred_nobel.html]