Alexander The Great Essay Research Paper In

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Alexander The Great Essay, Research Paper In 334 B.C. Alexander crossed the Hellespont. Something that his father had planned but didn t fully achieved. He defeated the Persian forces that were gathered on the Asian side of the River Granicus. After this victory Alexander sent three hundred suits of Persian armor back to Athens. The message that went with them read, Alexander, the son of Philip, and the Greeks, except the Spartans, have won this spoil from the barbarians of Asia, thus expressing in one brief and self-assured sentence his contempt for the Persians, his even greater contempt for the Spartans, and his conviction that he was furthering a Greek cause. Of all the generals of the ancient world Alexander was surely the greatest. He possessed an almost clairvoyant

insight into strategy and was a consummately resourceful tactician. Alexander could be compared to Napoleon in swiftness and in movement, but Alexander could be patient as well. As he showed in his siege of the fortress of Tyre, which lasted for about seven months. The old port of Tyre had been abandoned for some time, and the Tyrians were now securely enclosed behind massive walls on an island that was half a mile from the shore. Alexander made attempts to negotiate an entrance into the city but they were halted by a display of force against his envoy by the Tyrians. Alexander was determined to run every risk and make every effort to save the Macedonian army from being held in contempt by a single undistinguished city. This commitment turned out to be far more exacting then

Alexander could have ever imagined. Nevertheless, his determination and aversion to failure drove him to conjure up a more imaginative approach. He built a solid causeway over the water, half a mile long and two hundred feet wide. Then he constructed siege towers of 150 feet in height. Unfortunately the Tyrians responded to each and every effort with innovations of their own. At one point during the siege, his advisors gave him reason to abandon the assault. However, Alexander was not about to admit that he had labored in vain, nor was he willing to leave Tyre behind as a monument of his fallibility. Reinforced by ships from the Persian fleet that had defected to him, Alexander launched a varied assault on the city. Eight thousand Tyrians were said to have perished during the

sack. Alexander personally led the attack on a breached section of the city s wall. The siege was a moderate success in his eyes considering the resources lost. Alexander was a man incapable of shrugging his shoulders and walking away from an unsuccessful effort. If as a result of several futile attempts, frustrated and angry, he would have decided that a quick and sudden attack would rescue him from embarrassment. Victory on the battlefield promised to be more complex. During the intervening two years since the battle of Issus, Darius had assembled some 25,000 horseman from his eastern satrapies, an untold number of infantry, 200 scythed chariots, and even 15 elephants. He was now encamped on a wide plain near Gaugamela. Alexander could only field 7,000 horsemen and 40,000

footmen. His men were superior in discipline and experience in the field, but he was short in numbers and well aware of it. Alexander delayed the attack until he had seen the battlefield with his own eyes. Scanning the terrain for advantageous positions to make up for the lacking number of Macedonian forces. The day of the battle came and went with a stunning victory for Alexander. His plan was to create a rift in the center of the Persian troops. For that was where Darius was and where the commands for the Persian army were coming from. Alexander simply charged towards Darius’s chariot. Like Issus this tactic again proved to be successful. Darius fled Gaugamela like he fled at Issus. Alexander was extremely skillful at dealing with unfamiliar tactics of warfare, such as the