Alexander Iii Essay Research Paper Figures in

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Alexander Iii Essay, Research Paper Figures in history have always been influential to society and play a major role in how the civilization prospers. Also a major contribution to society is the duality of the man who rules. The significance of these factors came together to form an immense and powerful society with no limits. One of these key leaders in early 12th century roman society was Pope Alexander III. In this documentary I will explain Alexander III early life, his education at the University Bologna, and the many social status that he obtained in his inclination of early roman society. I will also explain the many important factors and attributions that he contributed as Pope of Rome. Pope Alexander III was born in Siena, Italy in the early 12th century. Born by the

birth name of Roland Bandinelli he was born in to a well-distinguished family. Not much is know about Bandinelli’s early childhood due to the lack of documentation of the early Roman history. Roland’s father was a man by the name of Rainucci Bandinelli, and his grandfather whose name is unknown was a Frenchman who moved to Siena Italy many years earlier. Roland Bandinelli was a very peaceful and kind man, plus he was a very educated man he could understand writings from human and divine authors. Bandinelli was a tremendous speaker he knew how to be very polite and clear when speaking to a group of people. Roland did all his good works and was a thoughtful, kind, and gentle man all to please God, which was his main purpose in life. The records go as far back as the year 1139,

Roland Bandinelli was known to be a professor at the University of Bologna where he taught theology and the Holy Scripture. The exact location where Bandinelli taught in Bologna has not been discovered. Around the year 1145, Eugene III made Bandinelli the cardinal-deacon. Many people admired Bandinelli at this time for his unbelievable knowledge of the church. Roland Bandinelli was a very intelligent man who always had a solution for any problem that would come up. Eventually by 1151 Bandinelli was named the cardinal-priest of St. Mark, which was a step higher from cardinal-deacon. A couple of years later in 1153 Bandinelli were placed as the vice-chancellor to the Holy Roman Church. At this point Roland was Adrian IV’s closest advisor, but on 1 September 1159 Adrian IV died so

the church needed someone to replace pope Adrian IV. There was three days of deliberation between all of the cardinal’s of the Roman Church. After the many long hours of talking they elected Bandinelli pope at the end of the third day. Roland Bandinelli was crowned pope of Rome at Ninfa an estate near Veletri on 20 September 1159. When Roland was crowned he took the name of Alexander III, which was his name until his death on 30 August 1181 in Civita Castellana in Italy. (Munz 1973) Alexander III did Immense and very strategic things as Pope of Rome; one of the most important of his accomplishments was being one of the men in charge of the Third Lateran Council. The whole purpose of this Third Lateran Council was to end the schism with the Roman Church. Another man that was

chosen as an anti-pope to run this council with Alexander was Octavian of Rome, who took the name Victor IV. They began this council in Rome, Italy on 5 March 1179 A.D. There were 27 different canons in which this council wrote down to try to stop all the corruption in Rome. These canons were included with the collections of decretals, which were brought together in the late 12th century and early 13th century. Eventually these collections of canons were placed into Pope Gregory IX’s decretals. Many scholars think that these decretals were founded by all of the Lateran Councils, especially the Third Lateran Council in which Alexander III was very much apart of. The first canon written said that nobody was to be regarded as Roman pontiff innless he got picked by the cardinals by