Airplanes Essay Research Paper One of the

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Airplanes Essay, Research Paper One of the first things that is likely to be noticed during a visit to the local airport is the wide variety of airplane styles and designs. Although, at first glance, it may be seen that airplanes look quite different from one another, in the long run their major components are quite similar. These similarities lie in the fuselage, wing, empennage, landing gear, and powerplant. The four forces of flight which all planes have in common are lift, weight, thrust, and drag. The fuselage serves several functions. Besides being a common attachment point for the other major components, it houses the cabin, or cockpit, which contains seats for the occupants and the controls for the airplane. The fuselage usually has a small baggage compartment and may

include additional seats for passengers. When air flows around the wings of an airplane, it generates a force called “lift” that helps the airplane fly. Wings are contoured to take maximum advantage of this force. Wings may be attached at the top, middle, or lower portion of the fuselage. These designs are referred to as high-, mid-, and low-wing, respectively. The number of wings can also vary. Airplanes with a single set of wings are referred to as monoplanes, while those with two sets are called biplanes. To help fly the airplane, the wings have two types of control surfaces attached to the rear, or trailing, edges. They are referred to as ailerons and flaps. Ailerons extend from about the midpoint of each wing outward to the tip. They move in opposite directions – when

one aileron goes up, the other goes down. Flaps extend outward from the fuselage to the midpoint of each wing. They always move in the same direction. If one flap is down, the other one is also down. The empennage consists of the vertical stabilizer, or fin, and the horizontal stabilizer. These two surfaces are stationary and act like the feathers on an arrow to steady the airplane and help maintain a straight path through the air. The rudder is attached to the back of the vertical stabilizer. Used to move the airplane’s nose left and right. Actually, using the rudder and ailerons in combination during flight to initiate a turn. The elevator is attached to the back of the horizontal stabilizer. During flight it is used to move the nose up and down to direct the airplane to the

desired altitude, or height. Most airplanes have a small, hinged section at the back of the elevator called a trim tab. Its purpose is to relieve the pressure it must be held on the control wheel to keep the nose in the desired position. In most small airplanes, the trim tab is controlled with a wheel or a crank in the cockpit. Some empennage designs vary from the type of horizontal stabilizer. They have a one-piece horizontal stabilizer that pivots up and down from a central hinge point. This type of design, called a stabilator, requires no elevator. Move the stabilator using the control wheel, just as in an elevator. When you pull back, the nose moves up; when you push forward, the nose moves down. An antiservo tab is mounted at the back of the stabilator, to provide a control

“feel” similar to what you experience with an elevator. Without the antiservo tab, control forces from the stabilator would be so light that it might might be “over controlled” the airplane or move the control wheel too far to obtain the desired result. The antiservo tab also functions as a trim tab. The landing gear absorbs landing loads and supports the airplane on the ground. It typically is made up of three wheels. The two main wheels are located on either side of the fuselage. The third may be positioned either at the nose or at the tail. If it is located at the tail, it is called a tailwheel. In this case, the airplane is said to have conventional landing gear. Conventional gear is common on older airplanes, as well as on some newer ones. It is desirable for