Air Pollution 4 Essay Research Paper Damage — страница 4
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that losses from utilities increased from 4.3 to 5.5 percent. The loss distribution among this scenario was comparable to scenarios one and two, however this was the only one where agricultural losses increased over the time period. This can be largely due to the higher growth rate in electric demand. Another study dealing with damages in the agricultural sector dealt with damages to corn and hay in the northeast from acidic deposition and Nox. The study looked at the region consisting of five states including Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont. The focus of this study was to calculate monetary losses for the year 1979. In this study was a sensitivity analysis where both physical and economic parameters were varied in order to assess the sensitivity of final results to physical economic estimates. Due to the lack of information regarding the movement of airborne residuals, the study is based on total measurements of rainfall acidity and concentrations of Nox. Looking at the results from this study, it is clear that potential losses to producers do exist. The results indicate a potential loss of about $65 million in 1979. These losses are at a point in time in comparison with the ORBES study covering the period from 1976 to 2000. Of the five states, New York suffered the highest losses, which attributed to 78.1% of the total losses. The losses associated with corn and hay were roughly 8.2% of producer surplus related to a clean air situation. However, there is no split between utility and background sources. The study uses ambient regions to get ambient concentrations and acidity of rainfall. In the presence of dirty air, 6% was the losses attributed to corn production, while 10% was attributed to hay. It should be noted that no research of their own was used in forming the damage coefficient for hay. They used literature to estimate for the hay. Regional losses were found to be more sensitive to variations in prices of crops, rather than that of supply elasticity’s for the crops. However, damage coefficients are difficult to come up with when using this analysis. The damage that is occurring is not related to point sources in the area. The particulates are being blown into the area from prevailing winds. In the end it is clear that damage is occurring to these crops, but the true amount of damage is difficult and maybe even impossible to calculate. In conclusion, it is becoming necessary to recognize the degree of damage that airborne residuals have on both our health and sectors of our economy. Studies like the ones mentioned above are only a few of the many which attempt to put a dollar value on the losses experienced in order to help us decide how relevant pollution abatement is. Realizing that every study is not accurate and is only a best guess should suggest that more research be done before spending money on corrective actions.