Air Pollution 4 Essay Research Paper Damage

  • Просмотров 294
  • Скачиваний 12
  • Размер файла 18

Air Pollution 4 Essay, Research Paper Damage Functions from Airborne Residuals Air pollution is a growing concern that has gained an increasing level of attention by both scientists and legislators. This need to understand the degree of damages resulting from airborne residuals has sparked many projects to determine how these residuals are affecting us, and the cost that they bear to both our economy and our health. Once this information has been found, only then can we look at ways to estimate the benefit of pollution abatement. Methods of determining mortality and morbidity related to airborne residuals are often unreliable and inadequate considering the amount of variables unknown. Epidemiological studies include data that are the best adapted to the estimation of air

pollution effects. This data is gathered over long periods of time, however it is harder to pinpoint morbidity data because we don’t know all the things that made someone become ill. Another problem with gathering this is that a lot of morbidity simply isn’t reported. What is being reported is employment based, which includes things such as vacation and sick days. From this data we don’t have a way to relate sickness to that of pollution. To further complicate the problem, the use of death certificates aren’t relevant in the fact that they don’t tell what really killed the person, therefore making the information on them unreliable. Smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and many other immeasurable factors that can lead to death go unaccounted for. A second method of

investigating is by looking at episodic relationships. This deals mainly with mortality, and the information gathered reflects episodes recorded in discrete time blocks. It is gathered during a short term, for example, on a daily or weekly basis. The problem with this is that the measurements are crude and are based only on a single measurement for a large area. Once again, long-term exposure or habits can cause data to be unreliable, take for example someone smoking for 45 years who developed lung cancer. Lifetime exposure might bear little relation to currently measured levels of pollution. Conversions over time and space are sensitive to certain combinations of things in the atmosphere. It is evident that the ideology is undefined when talking about air pollution in the fact

that no direct relationship exists. Having utilized both of these methods in looking at the relationship between air pollution and human health are Lester B. Lave and Eugene P. Seskin. Their investigation has looked at the mortality experienced based on a certain smoke and deposit index between both males and females in different county boroughs in England. The results from these areas are in relation to such diseases as bronchitis, lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease. Through a multiple regression analysis, they concluded that air pollution accounts for a doubling of the bronchitis mortality rate for urban, as compared to rural, areas. The variation of the mortality ranges from .3 to.8, which concludes that it is a significant explanatory variable in all

cases. From this they proposed that if the air quality in all the boroughs were improved to the quality to that of the best air in all the samples, the average mortality rate would fall from 129 to 77. This represents a 40 percent drop in the death rate among males and a 70 percent drop among females. They also claim that bronchitis mortality can be reduced from 25 to 50 percent depending on the location and deposit index. This seems hard to imagine considering how and if the air could actually be made to the best air experienced. The results comparing lung cancer and pollution are less conclusive but have been correlated with several indices of pollution and socioeconomic variables. For smokers, adjusted death rates ranged from 25 to 123 percent higher in urban areas than in