Aids Essay Research Paper AIDS A US — страница 2

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explain what they mean by “programmed,” showing that the virus wasproduced by humans, namely Dr. Robert Gallo of the Bethesda Cancer Research Center inMaryland. When proceeding to prove their claims, the Segals are careful to note that:”We have given preference to the investigative results of highly renowned laboratories,whose objective contents cannot be doubted. We must emphasize, in thisconnection, that we do not know of any findings that have been published inprofessional journals that contradict our hypotheses.” DISCOVERING AIDS The first KNOWN cases of AIDS occurred in New York in 1979. The firstDESCRIBED cases were in California in 1979. The virus was isolated in Paris inMay 1983, taken from a French homosexual who had returned home ill from a tripto the East Coast

of the US. One year later, Robert Gallo and his co-workers atthe Bethesda Cancer Research Center published their discovery of the samevirus, which is cytotoxic. ( i.e poisonous to cells )Shortly after publishing his discovery, Gallo stated to newspapers that thevirus had developed by a natural process from the Human Adult Leukemia virus,HTLV-1, which he had previously discovered. However, this claim was notpublished in professional publications, and soon after, Alizon and Montagnier,two researchers of the Pasteur Institute in Paris published charts of HTLV-1and HIV, showing that the viruses had basically different structures. They alsodeclared categorically that they knew of no natural process by which one ofthese two forms could have evolved into the other.According to the

professional “science” magazine, the fall 1984 annual meetingof the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), was almostentirely devoted to the question of: to what extent new pathogenic agents couldbe produced via human manipulation of genes. According to the Segals, AIDS waspractically the sole topic of discussion. THE AIDS VIRUS The Segals discuss the findings of Gonda et al, who compared the HIV, visnaand other closely-related viruses and found that the visna virus is the mostsimilar to HIV. The two were, in fact, 60% identical in 1986. According tofindings of the Hahn group, the mutation rate of the HIV virus was about amillion times higher than that of similar viruses, and that on the average a10% alteration took place every two years. That would mean

that in 1984, thedifference between HIV and visna would have been only 30%, in 1982- 20%, 10% in1980 and zero in 1978. “This means,” say the Segals, “that at this time visnaviruses changed into HIV, receiving at the same time the ability to becomeparasites in human T4-cells and the high genetic instability that is not knownin other retroviruses. This is also consistent with the fact that the firstcases of AIDS appeared about one year later, in the spring of 1979.”"In his comparison of the genomes of visna and HIV,” add the Segals, “Coffinhit upon a remarkable feature. The env (envelope) area of the HIV genome, whichencodes the envelope proteins which help the virus to attach itself to the hostcell, is about 300 nucleotides longer than the same area in visna.

Thisbehaviour suggests that an additional piece has been inserted into the genomesof the visna virus, a piece that alters the envelope proteins and enables them to bind themselves to the T4-receptors. BUT THIS SECTION BEHAVES LIKE ABIOLOGICALLY ALIEN BODY, which does not match the rest of the systembiochemically. The above mentioned work by Gonda et al shows that the HIV virus has a sectionof about 300 nucleotides, which does not exist in the visna virus. That lengthcorresponds with what Coffin described. That section is particularly unstable,which indicates that it is an alien object. According to the Segals, it”originates in an HTLV-1 genome, (discovered by Gallo-ED) for the likelihood ofan accidental occurrence in HIV of a genome sequence 60% identical with asection of the

HTLV-1 that is 300 nucleotides in length is zero.” Since thevisna virus is incapable of attaching itself to human T4 receptors, it musthave been the transfer of the HTLV-1 genome section which gave visna thecapability to do so. In other words, the addition of HTLV-1 to visna made theHIV virus. In addition, the high mutation rate of the HIV genome has beenexplained by another scientific team, Chandra et al, by the fact that it is “acombination of two genome parts which are alien to each other BY ARTIFICIALMEANS rather than by a natural process of evolution, because this process wouldhave immediately eliminated, through natural selection, systems that are soreplete with disorders.”"These are the facts of the case,” say the Segals. “HIV is essentially a visnavirus