Aggression Essay Research Paper Aggression is difficult

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Aggression Essay, Research Paper Aggression is difficult to define, it is a complex phenomenon, and depending upon the context the term can be made to carry either positive or negative connotations, it can be attacking behavior that may be either self-protective and self-assertive or to the infliction of injury toward oneself or toward others, to the total destruction of others. Is aggression biological determined or the product of learning and environmental influences.? This essay, will consider instinctive theory, the frustration – aggression hypothesis, and social learning theory. It should then be possible to draw a conclusion to see if any or all of the theories discussed are the cause of aggression. Brain disorders, hormonal and chemical imbalances, environmental

factors, such as heat, noise, air pollution and overcrowding, although contribute to the causes of aggression will not be discussed during the course of this essay. No universally adopted definition of aggression exists, for the purpose of this discussion, the definition of Gross will be used. Gross defines aggression as :- “The intentional infliction of some form of harm on others” (Gross page 444) Freud proposed that aggression is an instinctive biological urge. According to Freud this instinct, is made up of the libido (pleasure) and “Thanatos” (the death wish) (pain). This basic instinct is present in the Id from birth, at first the aggression is relatively uncontrolled, but with the development of the Ego and superego it becomes channeled into socially acceptable

behavior If these impulses are not released periodically in safe ways, they soon reach dangerous levels capable of producing acts of violence. Sometimes it is released in the form of physical or verbal abuse against another, (where the anger is displaced onto another). Sometimes the aggressive impulse is turned inward and produces self – punishment action, even suicide. The best that can be hoped for, according to Freud, is that aggressive impulses will be “channeled into socially acceptable forms.” such as football, sport etc. (Bernstein et al page 715). However, this theory does not explain why some people are aggressive and others are not, and if aggression is dissipated into sport, why is there football violence and violence at other sporting events? Lorenz, like Freud

believed that aggressive energy builds up in the individual, and eventually has to be discharged in some way. Lorenz’s states that aggression is the “fighting instinct” in man, and that man is naturally aggressive. This instinct developed during the course of evolution because it yielded many benefits, for example, fighting serves to disperse populations over a wide area, ensuring maximum use of resources. “Such behavior often helps to strengthen genetic make-up of a species by assuring that only the strongest individuals manage to reproduce”, ( Baron/Byrne page 328) This fighting instinct is both present in man and animals, and that aggression in animals is do with ‘Ritualization and appeasement’ and through these rituals and series of appeasement’s animals avoid

destroying each other, but aggression in humans, is ‘no longer under the control of rituals, and it has become distorted in man” (Gross page 445). However nearly all the evidence of Lorenz’s theory comes from research with animals, and many psychologist “doubt whether the results apply to humans, because in the animal world instinct plays a more significant role than with humans”. ( Berstein et al page 716). Further It is generally agreed by looking at present day Eskimos, Pygmies, and Aborigines, that man is a ‘hunter – gatherer’. and that there is a powerful human tendency to cooperate which is a legacy from our ancient hunting past, when we had to co-operate or starve. People then lived in small tribal groups, were warfare did not exists, there were no armies,