Agent Orange Essay Research Paper Just saying — страница 3

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was halted in 1971. As the decade wore on, concern about possible long-term health consequences of Agent Orange and other herbicides heightened, fueled in part by reports from Vietnam veterans that they had developed cancer or fathered handicapped children. Some veterans attributed these health problems to wartime exposure to herbicides. Since then, thousands of scientific studies have been conducted. Faced with lingering uncertainty, Congress asked the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine to conduct a comprehensive review of available scientific information regarding the health effects of exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides used in Vietnam. Studies find that TCDD elicits a diverse spectrum of biological sex, strain, age, and species-specific effects;

including carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, chloracne, and loss of body weight. These effects vary according to the age, sex, species, and strain of the animals involved. To date, the scientific consensus is that TCDD is not genotoxic and that its ability to influence the carcinogenic process is mediated via epigenetic events such as enzyme induction, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and intracellular communication. Children born to Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange may have a greater risk of being born with Spina Bifida, a serious birth defect, according to the latest scientific review of health problems linked to the use of herbicides and dioxin. The findings have prompted the United States Department of

Veterans Affairs (VA) to seek legislation that would provide an appropriate remedy to help the estimated 3,000 children afflicted with the congenital abnormality. According to a report by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), there is evidence supporting the association between chemicals used for defoliation during the Vietnam War and the above average rate of children of Vietnam veterans born with a deformity of the spine or spinal cord. The health effects of dioxins have gotten more attention than the ecological effects. How did dioxin exposure affect the 3 million U.S. soldiers who served in Vietnam? According to the Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides, part of the U.S. Institute of Medicine that was assigned to study the issue,

there is strong evidence that dioxin causes three cancers: soft-tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and Hodgkin’s disease, and the skin diseases chloracne and PCT (chloracne is a specific acne-like skin disorder, and PCT is a liver disorder characterized by thinning and blistering. The committee also found suggestive links between Agent Orange and three other cancers: respiratory cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma. Certain cancers, diseases, and disorders that were before linked to exposure of Agent Orange didn?t have enough or adequate evidence that would prove that they were linked to Agent Orange spraying. Limited or Suggestive Evidence. There has been found limited or suggestive evidence of an association between exposure to herbicides of the kind used in

Vietnam and three other cancers: respiratory cancers, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma. * Inadequate Evidence. The scientific data for most cancers and other diseases, such as adverse neurological and reproductive effects, were inadequate or insufficient to determine whether an association exists. * No Association. For a small group of cancers, it has been found that a sufficient number and variety of well-designed studies exist to conclude that there is limited or suggestive evidence of no association between these cancers and the herbicides or dioxin. This group includes skin cancer, gastrointestinal tumors (colon, rectal, stomach, and pancreatic), bladder cancer, and brain tumors. First was denial that it was used at all, then denial that it was sprayed on American

soldiers, and of course always denial that it had any ill effects. The ultimate decision was that their illness was caused by stress, although cancer, from which some veterans are suffering, may result from chemicals to which some veterans were exposed. Ultimately it comes down to the simple fact that veterans were not believed about their exposures in Vietnam Whatever the case, and we are never going to get total agreement, credit should be given for recently allowing veterans with cancer to receive treatment without having to argue their individual case. They have not recognized a link between the chemicals and cancer, but have done the next best thing, and in the end that is what the veteran needs…..Treatment. Distrust though is still there. Distrust because it took so long