Africa Proconsularis And Numid Essay Research Paper

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Africa Proconsularis And Numid Essay, Research Paper Before the Roman As the desert dries up in Africa around 2000 BC, a group of people are being isolated in the mountain of northwest Africa. They remained at an early form of civilization, still hunting animal, and settling simple agriculture. The Greek called them Libyans; Roman called them Africans, Numidians, and Moors. Around 1000 BC, the Phoenicians began to use North Africa as a trade route from Syria to Span. They build settlements coastal settlements for their shits to rest at. The Phoenicians has no interest in Africa as a resource; however, the Africans are amazed by the ports, and start trading wheat with the Phoenicians. By the sixth century BC, the Greeks start to settle on Sicily Island, and attempts push the

Phoenicians southward. The Phoenicians start to struggle with Greek for hundred years. In the end, the Greeks won, and the Phoenicians begins exploring Africa, while trying to look a place for new resources. They build Carthage. Soon, the Carthaginians builds a strong country, using farming as resources, and Africans as army. Africa and Rome By the third century BC, Carthage had become such a great power, that Roman was both jealous and fear of it. In 264BC, a series of Punic War happened between Roman and Carthage. In 146 BC, the third Punic War ended, and Roman had control over the whole know Africa. The Roman formed settlement in the most fertile part, Africa Vetus, and the rest of the territory was left to Masinissa, the king of Numidia. After the death of Masinissa, his son,

Micipsa, has the throne. Micipsa soon realized that one of his dead brothers sons, Jugurtha, would threaten his sons power. So he send Jugurtha fighting for the Roman, hoping he would be killed. However, Jugurtha lived, and made many friends in the Roman. When he returned to Africa, the Roman commander, Scipio Africanus, send a recommend letter to Micipsa. Micipsa took the hints and made Micipsa joint heir with Micipsa s two sons. After Micipsa s death, Jugurtha killed one of Micipsa s sons and exciled the other. Because Micipsa seize the throne illegally, the Roman had to step in and started the Jugurthine War with Jugurtha. The war ended when King Bocchus of Mauretania, Jugurtha s father-in-law, betrayed him and delivered Jugurtha Sulla, the Roman general, and King Bocchus was

rewarded with the western part of Numidia. In 60 BC the first triumvirate of Rome was formed between Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus. Pompey recieved control of Africa, and the Numidian king of the time, Juba I, was his supporter. When the triumvirate dissolved in 53 BC, Juba I continued to defend Africa against the forces of Caesar. This resistance was not long lived, however, and by 46 BC, Caesar had defeated the Pompean loyalists. As a sign of victory, Caesar had Juba s young son, Juba II, taken to Rome to be brought up in his household. Africa was not left to its own devices anymore. Caesar extended direct Roman rule to include most of the Numidian kingdom. After the death of King Bocchus in 33 BC, the kingdom of Mauretania fell to Roman rule as well. One of Caesar s main African

projects was to refound Carthage. He was murdered before he achieves his goal. Augustus, however, achieved the goal, and Juba II returned to rule Mauretania. Juba II was a loyal Roman supporter for all of his reign. Upon Juba II s death, his son Ptolemy took over Mauretania. The Moors revolted immediately, and was put down quickly and efficiently by the Roman, but it was obvious that Rome would have to take direct control here as well. Claudius did that around AD 40, creating two provinces in Mauretania, and completing the full control of the Roman province of Africa. Roman Rule of Africa The province of Africa was governed as any other senatorial province. Senators were chosen to serve one-year terms as proconsuls and propraetors. Africa was deemed a frontier province, and as